Abstract

We describe the global correlations between a measure of the Southern Oscillation and sea level pressure and surface air temperature in the northern winter. The stability of these correlations were tested on the Northern Hemisphere for an 80-year period, and it turned out that most stable correlation coefficients were found over India, the North Pacific Ocean, the Rocky Mountains, and the central and western North Atlantic Ocean. On the Southern Hemisphere most records are too short for a similar test, but the following may tentatively be said about the Southern Oscillation in middle and high southern latitudes: when pressure is low in lower latitudes over the South Pacific Ocean it tends to be high at higher latitudes of that ocean, high over East Antarctica and low in the belt of westerlies in the Indian and South Atlantic oceans. In the zonal average on both hemispheres the pressure gradients in this extreme of the oscillation tend to be steeper at lower latitudes and flatter at higher latitudes than in the other extreme. The apparent large-scale sympathetic variations between the SO and temperature are shown to occur over the relatively wide range of periods dust have been attributed to the SO itself.

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