Abstract

The report summarizes sky-brightness and daylight-illumination measurements made during the year ending April 6, 1953. For 10 months the measurements were made in a suburb of Washington that is comparatively free from city smoke. During the other 2 months, one in summer and one in winter, the measurements were made in the smoky atmosphere of the city of Chicago.

The measurements were made as nearly as possible with the sun at altitudes above the horizon of 0°, 20°, 40°, 60°, and 70°. From the sky-brightness measurements the resulting illumination on vertical surfaces differently oriented with respect to the sun, and on surfaces sloping at different angles and in different directions, has been computed. These computed values have been utilized, in connection with daylight-illumination measurements, to construct charts showing for latitude 42° north, illumination intensities for each hour of each day of the year as follows:

  1. On a vertical and on a horizontal surface, from a cloudy sky.

  2. On a horizontal surface and on vertical surfaces facing the eight principal points of the compass, from a clear sky.

  3. On a horizontal surface and on vertical surfaces facing the eight principal points of the compass, from the sun and clear sky combined.

The illumination on sloping surfaces from skylight and from solar and skylight combined has been summarized in tables.

The application of these data to the lighting of working space in a building through saw-tooth roof construction is shown. It is pointed out that with a clear sky the larger proportion of the illumination should result from the reflection of light from the outside roof surface through the window opening, rather than by the direct transmission of skylight through the window.

With a cloudy sky the illumination on a horizontal surface is considerably more than twice that on a vertical surface, due to the fact that the region of maximum brightness is in or near the zenith.

With high sun, as at midday in summer, the illumination from a cloudy sky averages higher than the illumination from a clear sky except on a vertical surface facing the sun. This is not the case with low sun.

The maximum illumination from a clear sky on vertical surfaces is a little in excess of 1,400 foot-candles, and occurs on surfaces facing the sun from early June to early September, between the hours of 8:30 a. m. and 3:30 p. m.

The minimum illumination from skylight is on a vertical surface facing away from the sun. At Chicago in the smoky Loop District the illumination from a cloudless sky on such a surface averages about 2/3 the illumination at Washington on a similar surface from a clear sky.

The total (solar+sky) illumination generally increases on surfaces sloping toward the south until the angle of slope reaches 20°, except with low sun during the summer months. The maximum is about 11,000 foot-candles at noon in midsummer.

At Washington the illumination from a clear sky on both horizontal and vertical surfaces varies between 150 and 60 per cent of the average values; from a cloudy sky, between 200 and 30 per cent; from a sky partly covered with white clouds, on a horizontal surface three to four times, and on a vertical surface two to three times that from a clear sky; with rain falling, about half that from a cloudy sky.

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Footnotes

1

Report of the committee on sky brightness of the Illuminating Engineering Society, H. H. Kimball, chairman. Presented at the annual convention, Swampscott, Mass., September 28, 1922; later, revised and extended.