Thunderstorm frequency and amount of moisture above 500 mb. both indicate that the equatorial regions of South America and Africa and the “maritime continent” of Indonesia and the Carolines generate a much greater amount of heat for export than do equatorial oceanic regions.

Over the maritime continent in January 1963, heat generated from excessive rains was efficiently transported northward and through conversion of potential to kinetic energy proably helped maintain an intense subtropical jet stream. In January 1964 drought over the maritime continent was accompained by a relative accumulation of heat in the upper troposphere, associated with inefficient poleward transport, and a much weaker circulation. Most winters over the western Pacific and southeast Asia fluctuate between situations typical of January 1963 and January 1964.

Since the troposphere over the maritime continent in winter is probably the single greatest source of energy for the extratropical circulation, the proposed Marshall Island experiment should be modified to include Indonesia and be rescheduled to include winter.




Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, Contribution No. 202. Research supported by the Atmospheric Sciences Section, National Science Foundation, NSF Grants GA-386 and GA-1009. Paper presented at the Fifth Technical Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Caracas, Venezuela, November 20–28, 1967.