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Li Liu
,
Wenjun Zhang
,
Chao Liu
, and
Feng Jiang

Abstract

The East Siberia–Beaufort Sea (EsCB) sea ice during boreal autumn has recently been reported to play important roles in the climate over Eurasia and North America. The EsCB sea ice exhibits remarkable year-to-year fluctuations in autumn (August–October), the season in which its minimum extent usually occurs. However, the physical driver of the autumn EsCB sea ice interannual variability remains unclear, impeding the seasonal prediction of local sea ice. Here we find that the autumn EsCB sea ice variability is largely driven by the preceding summer (May–July) dipolar atmospheric anomalies over the North Atlantic, resembling the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) pattern. During the negative NAO-like phase, the circumpolar anticyclonic anomalies tend to transport the warm air from Greenland toward the EsCB region, which triggers rapid sea ice melt there. The associated EsCB sea ice anomalies can be maintained or even intensified by the local sea ice–albedo positive feedback until autumn. Therefore, the abnormal signals of Arctic sea ice tend to show significant persistence in summer and autumn. The influence of the summer NAO-like atmospheric circulation on the ensuing autumn EsCB sea ice can be realistically reproduced in the historical simulation of the E3SM-1-0 model, supporting our findings based on the observation. This lagged relationship provides a promising pathway for skillful seasonal prediction of the EsCB sea ice and its related climatic impacts.

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Chao He
,
Ziqian Wang
,
Tianjun Zhou
, and
Tim Li

Abstract

Coupled climate system models consistently show that the low-level southerly wind associated with the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is enhanced under anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing, and the enhanced EASM was attributed to the enhanced land–sea thermal contrast by previous studies. Based on a comparison of the global warming scenarios with the present-day climate in an ensemble of 30 coupled models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), we show evidence that changes in land–sea thermal contrast cannot explain the enhanced EASM circulation in terms of the seasonality. Indeed, the enhanced low-level southerly wind over East Asia is associated with a large-scale anomalous cyclone around the Tibetan Plateau (TP), and numerical simulation by the Linear Baroclinic Model suggests that the enhanced latent heating over the TP associated with enhanced precipitation is responsible for this low-level cyclone anomaly and the enhanced EASM circulation projected by the coupled models. Moisture budget analysis shows that enhanced hydrological recycling and enhanced vertical moisture advection due to increased specific humidity have the largest contribution to the increased precipitation over the TP, and more than half of the intermodel uncertainty in the projected change of EASM circulation is associated with the uncertainty in the changes of precipitation over the TP. Therefore, the TP plays an essential role in enhancing the EASM circulation under global warming through enhanced latent heating over the TP.

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Chao Li
,
Dirk Notz
,
Steffen Tietsche
, and
Jochem Marotzke

Abstract

To examine the long-term stability of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, idealized simulations are carried out with the climate model ECHAM5/Max Planck Institute Ocean Model (MPI-OM). Atmospheric CO2 concentration is increased over 2000 years from preindustrial levels to quadrupling, is then kept constant for 5940 years, is afterward decreased over 2000 years to preindustrial levels, and is finally kept constant for 3940 years.

Despite these very slow changes, the sea ice response significantly lags behind the CO2 concentration change. This lag, which is caused by the ocean's thermal inertia, implies that the sea ice equilibrium response to increasing CO2 concentration is substantially underestimated by transient simulations. The sea ice response to CO2 concentration change is not truly hysteretic and is in principle reversible.

The authors find no lag in the evolution of Arctic sea ice relative to changes in annual-mean Northern Hemisphere surface temperature. The summer sea ice cover changes linearly with respect to both CO2 concentration and temperature, while the Arctic winter sea ice cover shows a rapid transition to a very low sea ice coverage. This rapid transition of winter sea ice is associated with a sharply enhanced ice–albedo feedback and a sudden onset of convective-cloud feedback in the Arctic.

The Antarctic sea ice cover retreats continuously without any rapid transition during the warming. Compared to Arctic sea ice, Antarctic sea ice shows a much more strongly lagged response to changes in CO2 concentration. It even lags behind the surface temperature change, which is caused by a different response of ocean deep convection during the warming and the cooling periods.

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Chad Shouquan Cheng
,
Guilong Li
,
Qian Li
,
Heather Auld
, and
Chao Fu

Abstract

Hourly/daily wind gust simulation models and regression-based downscaling methods were developed to assess possible impacts of climate change on future hourly/daily wind gust events over the province of Ontario, Canada. Since the climate/weather validation process is critical, a formal model result verification process has been built into the analysis to ascertain whether the methods are suitable for future projections. The percentage of excellent and good simulations among all studied seven wind gust categories ranges from 94% to 100% and from 69% to 95%, respectively, for hourly and daily wind gusts, for both model development and validation.

The modeled results indicate that frequencies of future hourly/daily wind gust events are projected to increase late this century over the study area under a changing climate. For example, across the study area, the annual mean frequency of future hourly wind gust events ≥28, ≥40, and ≥70 km h−1 for the period 2081–2100 derived from the ensemble of downscaled eight-GCM A2 simulations is projected to be about 10%–15%, 10%–20%, and 20%–40% greater than the observed average during the period 1994–2007, respectively. The corresponding percentage increase for future daily wind gust events is projected to be <10%, ~10%, and 15%–25%. Inter-GCM-model and interscenario uncertainties of future wind gust projections were quantitatively assessed. On average, projected percentage increases in frequencies of future hourly/daily wind gust events ≥28 and ≥40 km h−1 are about 90%–100% and 60%–80% greater than inter-GCM-model–interscenario uncertainties, respectively. For wind gust events ≥70 km h−1, the corresponding projected percentage increases are about 25%–35% greater than the interscenario uncertainties and are generally similar to inter-GCM-model uncertainties.

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Zhijin Li
,
Yi Chao
, and
James C. McWilliams

Abstract

An algorithm is proposed for the computation of streamfunction and velocity potential from given horizontal velocity vectors based on solving a minimization problem. To guarantee the uniqueness of the solution and computational reliability of the algorithm, a Tikhonov regularization is applied. The solution implies that the obtained streamfunction and velocity potential have minimal magnitude, while the given velocity vectors can be accurately reconstructed from the computed streamfunction and velocity potential. Because the formulation of the minimization problem allows for circumventing the explicit specification of separate boundary conditions on the streamfunction and velocity potential, the algorithm is easily applicable to irregular domains. By using an advanced minimization algorithm with the use of adjoint techniques, the method is computationally efficient and suitable for problems with large dimensions. An example is presented for coastal oceans to illustrate the practical application of the algorithm.

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Chenyu Cao
,
Xiaodan Guan
,
Chao Li
,
Zhaokui Gao
, and
Tonghui Gu

Anthropogenic influence contributed approximately 61% to the extreme high-temperature event in southern China in midsummer 2022, according to a dynamic adjustment methodology and supported by optimal fingerprinting analysis of CMIP6 models.

Open access
Wenhui Chen
,
Huijuan Cui
,
Francis W. Zwiers
,
Chao Li
, and
Jingyun Zheng

Abstract

Based on the observations and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6) multi-model simulations, we conducted a detection and attribution analysis for the observed changes in intensity and frequency indices of extreme precipitation during 1961-2014 over the whole of China and within distinct climate regions across the country. A space-time analysis is simultaneously applied in detection so that spatial structure on the signals is considered. Results show that the CMIP6 models can simulate the observed general increases of extreme precipitation indices during the historical period except for the drying trends from southwestern to northeastern China. The anthropogenic signal (ANT) is detectable and attributable to the observed increase of extreme precipitation over China, with human-induced greenhouse gas (GHG) increases being the dominant contributor. Additionally, we also detected the ANT and GHG signals in China’s Temperate continental, Subtropical-tropical monsoon, and Plateau mountain climate zones, demonstrating the role of human activity in historical extreme precipitation changes on much smaller spatial scales.

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Chong Wu
,
Liping Liu
,
Xi Liu
,
Guocui Li
, and
Chao Chen

Abstract

In the summer of 2016, one phased-array radar and two polarimetric weather radars, representative of advancing radar technology in use in China, jointly collected data in the Foshan area to study severe convective storms in southern China. After an introduction to the technical characteristics and a verification of the radar calibration, the advantages of the abovementioned dual-polarization and phased-array radars are discussed in terms of an observational analysis of a supercell that occurred on 9 May 2016. The polarimetric signatures within the supercell are associated with specific microphysical processes that can reveal different stages of storm evolution. The hydrometeor classification algorithm is a more straightforward and useful method for nowcasting than conventional algorithms, which makes it favorable for further recommendation in China. During the mature and dissipating stages of this supercell, observations of the phased-array radar show detailed changes on short time scales that cannot be observed by parabolic-antenna radars. The initiation and mergers of new convective cells are found in the peak inflow region, and the formation and dissipation of the hook echo are associated with the relative intensities of inflow and outflow. The abovementioned results demonstrate that the phased-array radar and dual-polarization radars recently developed in China are powerful tools to better understand storm evolution for nowcasting and scientific studies.

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Yaheng Tan
,
Francis Zwiers
,
Song Yang
,
Chao Li
, and
Kaiqiang Deng

Abstract

Performance in simulating atmospheric rivers (ARs) over western North America based on AR frequency and landfall latitude is evaluated for 10 models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project among which the CanESM2 model performs well. ARs are classified into southern, northern, and middle types using self-organizing maps in the ERA-Interim reanalysis and CanESM2. The southern type is associated with the development and eastward movement of anomalous lower pressure over the subtropical eastern Pacific, while the northern type is linked with the eastward movement of anomalous cyclonic circulation stimulated by warm sea surface temperatures over the subtropical western Pacific. The middle type is connected with the negative phase of North Pacific Oscillation–west Pacific teleconnection pattern. CanESM2 is further used to investigate projected AR changes at the end of the twenty-first century under the representative concentration pathway 8.5 scenario. AR definitions usually reference fixed integrated water vapor or integrated water vapor transport thresholds. AR changes under such definitions reflect both thermodynamic and dynamic influences. We therefore also use a modified AR definition that isolates change from dynamic influences only. The total AR frequency doubles compared to the historical period, with the middle AR type contributing the largest increases along the coasts of Vancouver Island and California. Atmospheric circulation (dynamic) changes decrease northern AR type frequency while increasing middle AR type frequency, indicating that future changes of circulation patterns modify the direct effect of warming on AR frequency, which would increase ARs (relative to fixed thresholds) almost everywhere along the North American coastline.

Open access
Minghao Yang
,
Chongyin Li
,
Xin Li
,
Yanke Tan
,
Xiong Chen
, and
Chao Zhang

Abstract

Based on the daily NCEP reanalysis, the present study investigates the interdecadal change in the relationship between the winter North Pacific storm track (WNPST) and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), and evaluates the WNPST–EAWM relationship in 17 CMIP6 models. The results show that the out-of-phase WNPST–EAWM relationship underwent an interdecadal change in the mid-1980s. The WNPST–EAWM relationship became less significant during period 2 (P2; 1990–2015). The atmospheric circulation anomaly related to the EAWM during period 1 (P1; 1955–80) is more robust than that during P2. The interdecadal weakening WNPST–EAWM relationship may be attributed to the interdecadal damping WNPST–EAWM interaction. The EAWM-related anomalous baroclinic energy conversion and moisture effects, including meridional and vertical eddy moisture fluxes, contribute to the significant attenuation of the WNPST during P1. The transient eddy-induced dynamic forcing and thermal forcing anomalies, as well as the barotropic process represented by the local Eliassen–Palm flux divergence associated with WNPST, can also significantly manipulate the upper-tropospheric jet during P1. However, the atmospheric circulation and interaction between the WNPST and EAWM during P2 are not as significant as those during P1. The effect of ENSO on the WNPST is significantly different before and after the mid-1980s. After the mid-1980s, the WNPST shows the characteristic of moving equatorward during El Niño events. It seems that ENSO takes over the WNPST from the EAWM after the mid-1980s. In addition, except for BCC-ESM1, CanESM5, and SAM0-UNICON, most of the CMIP6 models cannot reproduce the significant out-of-phase WNPST–EAWM relationship.

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