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Ping Zhao
,
Song Yang
,
Huijun Wang
, and
Qiang Zhang

Abstract

Summertime relationships between the Asian–Pacific Oscillation (APO) and climate anomalies over Asia, the North Pacific, and North America are examined on an interdecadal time scale. The values of APO were low from the 1880s to the mid-1910s and high from the 1920s to the 1940s. When the APO was higher, tropospheric temperatures were higher over Asia and lower over the Pacific and North America. From the low-APO decades to the high-APO decades, both upper-tropospheric highs and lower-tropospheric low pressure systems strengthened over South Asia and weakened over North America. As a result, anomalous southerly–southwesterly flow prevailed over the Asian monsoon region, meaning stronger moisture transport over Asia. On the contrary, the weakened upper-tropospheric high and lower-tropospheric low over North America caused anomalous sinking motion over the region. As a result, rainfall generally enhanced over the Asian monsoon regions and decreased over North America.

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Jingzhi Su
,
Huijun Wang
,
Haijun Yang
,
Helge Drange
,
Yongqi Gao
, and
Mats Bentsen

Abstract

A coupled climate model is used to explore the response of the tropical sea surface temperature (SST) to positive SST anomalies in the global extratropics. The main model results here are consistent with previous numerical studies. In response to prescribed SST anomalies in the extratropics, the tropical SSTs rise rapidly and reach a quasi-equilibrium state within several years, and the tropical subsurface temperatures show a slow response. The annual-mean Hadley cell, as well as the surface trades, are weakened. The weakened trades reduce the poleward Ekman transports in the tropical ocean and, furthermore, lead to anomalous positive convergences of heat transport, which is the main mechanism for maintaining the tropical Pacific SST warming.

The process of an extratropical influence on the tropics is related to both the atmospheric and oceanic circulations. The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) moves southward and eastward in the Pacific, corresponding to a reduction of the Hadley circulation and Walker circulation. At the same time, convective precipitation anomalies are formed on the boundary of the climatological ITCZ, while the climatological mean convections centered in the Southeast Asia region are suppressed. The largely delayed response of the tropical subsurface temperature cannot be explained only by the strength change of the subtropical cells (STCs), but can be traced back to the slow changing of subsurface temperature in the extratropics. In the extratropical oceans, warming and freshening reduce the surface water density, and the outcropping lines of certain isopycnal layers are moved poleward. This poleward movement of outcropping lines can weaken the positive temperature anomalies, or even lead to negative anomalies, on given isopycnal layers. Displayed on time-dependent isopycnal layers, positive subsurface temperature anomalies are present only in the region after subduction, and are subsequently replaced by negative temperature anomalies in the deep tropics regions. The noticeable features of the density compensation of temperature and salinity indicate that diapycnal processes play an important role in the equatorward transport of the temperature and salinity anomalies from the midlatitude.

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Ping Zhao
,
Song Yang
,
Renguang Wu
,
Zhiping Wen
,
Junming Chen
, and
Huijun Wang

Abstract

The authors have identified an interannual relationship between Asian tropospheric temperature and the North Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) during summer (May–September) and discussed the associated features of atmospheric circulation over the Atlantic–Eurasian region. When tropospheric temperature is high (low) over Asia, positive (negative) SST anomalies appear in the extratropical North Atlantic. This relationship is well supported by the changes in background atmospheric circulation and ocean–atmosphere–land thermodynamic processes. When heat transfer from the land surface to the atmosphere over Asia strengthens, local tropospheric temperature increases and positive temperature anomalies propagate westward from Asia to the North Atlantic, leading to an increase in summer tropospheric temperature over the Atlantic–Eurasian region. Accordingly, a deep anomalous ridge occurs over the extratropical North Atlantic Ocean, with low-level southerly anomalies over the western portion of the ocean. Sensitivity experiments with climate models show that the interannual variations of the North Atlantic–Eurasian atmospheric circulation may not be forced by the extratropical Atlantic SST. Instead, experiments with changing Asian land surface heating capture the above observed features of atmospheric circulation anomalies, westward propagation of tropospheric anomalies, and Atlantic SST anomalies. The consistency between the observational and model results indicates a possible impact of Asian land heating on the development of atmospheric circulation and SST anomalies over the Atlantic–Eurasian region.

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