Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 40 items for :

  • Author or Editor: J. Anderson x
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
F. Martin Ralph
,
Jonathan J. Rutz
,
Jason M. Cordeira
,
Michael Dettinger
,
Michael Anderson
,
David Reynolds
,
Lawrence J. Schick
, and
Chris Smallcomb

Abstract

Atmospheric rivers (ARs) play vital roles in the western United States and related regions globally, not only producing heavy precipitation and flooding, but also providing beneficial water supply. This paper introduces a scale for the intensity and impacts of ARs. Its utility may be greatest where ARs are the most impactful storm type and hurricanes, nor’easters, and tornadoes are nearly nonexistent. Two parameters dominate the hydrologic outcomes and impacts of ARs: vertically integrated water vapor transport (IVT) and AR duration [i.e., the duration of at least minimal AR conditions (IVT ≥ 250 kg m–1 s–1)]. The scale uses an observed or predicted time series of IVT at a given geographic location and is based on the maximum IVT and AR duration at that point during an AR event. AR categories 1–5 are defined by thresholds for maximum IVT (3-h average) of 250, 500, 750, 1,000, and 1,250 kg m–1 s–1, and by IVT exceeding 250 kg m–1 s–1 continuously for 24–48 h. If the AR event duration is less than 24 h, it is downgraded by one category. If it is longer than 48 h, it is upgraded one category. The scale recognizes that weak ARs are often mostly beneficial because they can enhance water supply and snowpack, while stronger ARs can become mostly hazardous, for example, if they strike an area with antecedent conditions that enhance vulnerability, such as burn scars or wet conditions. Extended durations can enhance impacts. Short durations can mitigate impacts.

Open access
Thomas P. Ackerman
,
Amy J. Braverman
,
David J. Diner
,
Theodore L. Anderson
,
Ralph A. Kahn
,
John V. Martonchik
,
Joyce E. Penner
,
Philip J. Rasch
,
Bruce A. Wielicki
, and
Bin Yu

Given the breadth and complexity of available data, constructing a measurement-based description of global tropospheric aerosols that will effectively confront and constrain global three-dimensional models is a daunting task. Because data are obtained from multiple sources and acquired with nonuniform spatial and temporal sampling, scales, and coverage, protocols need to be established that will organize this vast body of knowledge. Currently, there is no capability to assemble the existing aerosol data into a unified, interoperable whole. Technology advancements now being pursued in high-performance distributed computing initiatives can accomplish this objective. Once the data are organized, there are many approaches that can be brought to bear upon the problem of integrating data from different sources. These include data-driven approaches, such as geospatial statistics formulations, and model-driven approaches, such as assimilation or chemical transport modeling. Establishing a data interoperability framework will stimulate algorithm development and model validation and will facilitate the exploration of synergies between different data types. Data summarization and mining techniques can be used to make statistical inferences about climate system relationships and interpret patterns of aerosol-induced change. Generating descriptions of complex, nonlinear relationships among multiple parameters is critical to climate model improvement and validation. Finally, determining the role of aerosols in past and future climate change ultimately requires the use of fully coupled climate and chemistry models, and the evaluation of these models is required in order to trust their results. The set of recommendations presented here address one component of the Progressive Aerosol Retrieval and Assimilation Global Observing Network (PARAGON) initiative. Implementing them will produce the most accurate four-dimensional representation of global aerosols, which can then be used for testing, constraining, and validating models. These activities are critical components of a sustained program to quantify aerosol effects on global climate.

Full access
Jerome M. Schmidt
,
Piotr J. Flatau
,
Paul R. Harasti
,
Robert. D. Yates
,
David J. Delene
,
Nicholas J. Gapp
,
William J. Kohri
,
Jerome R. Vetter
,
Jason E. Nachamkin
,
Mark G. Parent
,
Joshua D. Hoover
,
Mark J. Anderson
,
Seth Green
, and
James E. Bennett

Abstract

Descriptions of the experimental design and research highlights obtained from a series of four multiagency field projects held near Cape Canaveral, Florida, are presented. The experiments featured a 3 MW, dual-polarization, C-band Doppler radar that serves in a dual capacity as both a precipitation and cloud radar. This duality stems from a combination of the radar’s high sensitivity and extremely small-resolution volumes produced by the narrow 0.22° beamwidth and the 0.543 m along-range resolution. Experimental highlights focus on the radar’s real-time aircraft tracking capability as well as the finescale reflectivity and eddy structure of a thin nonprecipitating stratus layer. Examples of precipitating storm systems focus on the analysis of the distinctive and nearly linear radar reflectivity signatures (referred to as “streaks”) that are caused as individual hydrometeors traverse the narrow radar beam. Each streak leaves a unique radar reflectivity signature that is analyzed with regard to estimating the underlying particle properties such as size, fall speed, and oscillation characteristics. The observed along-streak reflectivity oscillations are complex and discussed in terms of diameter-dependent drop dynamics (oscillation frequency and viscous damping time scales) as well as radar-dependent factors governing the near-field Fresnel radiation pattern and inferred drop–drop interference.

Full access
John H. Seinfeld
,
Ralph A. Kahn
,
Theodore L. Anderson
,
Robert J. Charlson
,
Roger Davies
,
David J. Diner
,
John A. Ogren
,
Stephen E. Schwartz
, and
Bruce A. Wielicki

Aerosols are involved in a complex set of processes that operate across many spatial and temporal scales. Understanding these processes, and ensuring their accurate representation in models of transport, radiation transfer, and climate, requires knowledge of aerosol physical, chemical, and optical properties and the distributions of these properties in space and time. To derive aerosol climate forcing, aerosol optical and microphysical properties and their spatial and temporal distributions, and aerosol interactions with clouds, need to be understood. Such data are also required in conjunction with size-resolved chemical composition in order to evaluate chemical transport models and to distinguish natural and anthropogenic forcing. Other basic parameters needed for modeling the radiative influences of aerosols are surface reflectivity and three-dimensional cloud fields. This large suite of parameters mandates an integrated observing and modeling system of commensurate scope. The Progressive Aerosol Retrieval and Assimilation Global Observing Network (PARAGON) concept, designed to meet this requirement, is motivated by the need to understand climate system sensitivity to changes in atmospheric constituents, to reduce climate model uncertainties, and to analyze diverse collections of data pertaining to aerosols. This paper highlights several challenges resulting from the complexity of the problem. Approaches for dealing with them are offered in the set of companion papers.

Full access
Randolph H. Ware
,
David W. Fulker
,
Seth A. Stein
,
David N. Anderson
,
Susan K. Avery
,
Richard D. Clark
,
Kelvin K. Droegemeier
,
Joachim P. Kuettner
,
J. Bernard Minster
, and
Soroosh Sorooshian

“SuomiNet,” a university-based, real-time, national Global Positioning System (GPS) network, is being developed for atmospheric research and education with funding from the National Science Foundation and with cost share from collaborating universities. The network, named to honor meteorological satellite pioneer Verner Suomi, will exploit the recently shown ability of ground-based GPS receivers to make thousands of accurate upper- and lower-atmospheric measurements per day. Phase delays induced in GPS signals by the ionosphere and neutral atmosphere can be measured with high precision simultaneously along a dozen or so GPS ray paths in the field of view. These delays can be converted into integrated water vapor (if surface pressure data or estimates are available) and total electron content (TEC), along each GPS ray path. The resulting continuous, accurate, all-weather, real-time GPS moisture data will help advance university research in mesoscale modeling and data assimilation, severe weather, precipitation, cloud dynamics, regional climate, and hydrology. Similarly, continuous, accurate, all-weather, real-time TEC data have applications in modeling and prediction of severe terrestrial and space weather, detection and forecasting of low-altitude ionospheric scintillation activity and geomagnetic storm effects at ionospheric midlatitudes, and detection of ionospheric effects induced by a variety of geophysical events. SuomiNet data also have potential applications in coastal meteorology, providing ground truth for satellite radiometry, and detection of scintillation associated with atmospheric turbulence in the lower troposphere. The goal of SuomiNet is to make large amounts of spatially and temporally dense GPS-sensed atmospheric data widely available in real time, for academic research and education. Information on participation in SuomiNet is available via www.unidata.ucar.edu/suominet.

Full access
Robert E. Dickinson
,
Stephen E. Zebiak
,
Jeffrey L. Anderson
,
Maurice L. Blackmon
,
Cecelia De Luca
,
Timothy F. Hogan
,
Mark Iredell
,
Ming Ji
,
Ricky B. Rood
,
Max J. Suarez
, and
Karl E. Taylor

A common modeling infrastructure ad hoc working group evolved from an NSF/NCEP workshop in 1998, in recognition of the need for the climate and weather modeling communities to develop a more organized approach to building the software that underlies modeling and data analyses. With its significant investment of pro bono time, the working group made the first steps in this direction. It suggested standards for model data and model physics and explored the concept of a modeling software framework. An overall software infrastructure would facilitate separation of the scientific and computational aspects of comprehensive models. Consequently, it would allow otherwise isolated scientists to effectively contribute to core U.S. modeling activities, and would provide a larger market to computational scientists and computer vendors, hence encouraging their support.

Full access
C. L. Reddington
,
K. S. Carslaw
,
P. Stier
,
N. Schutgens
,
H. Coe
,
D. Liu
,
J. Allan
,
J. Browse
,
K. J. Pringle
,
L. A. Lee
,
M. Yoshioka
,
J. S. Johnson
,
L. A. Regayre
,
D. V. Spracklen
,
G. W. Mann
,
A. Clarke
,
M. Hermann
,
S. Henning
,
H. Wex
,
T. B. Kristensen
,
W. R. Leaitch
,
U. Pöschl
,
D. Rose
,
M. O. Andreae
,
J. Schmale
,
Y. Kondo
,
N. Oshima
,
J. P. Schwarz
,
A. Nenes
,
B. Anderson
,
G. C. Roberts
,
J. R. Snider
,
C. Leck
,
P. K. Quinn
,
X. Chi
,
A. Ding
,
J. L. Jimenez
, and
Q. Zhang

Abstract

The largest uncertainty in the historical radiative forcing of climate is caused by changes in aerosol particles due to anthropogenic activity. Sophisticated aerosol microphysics processes have been included in many climate models in an effort to reduce the uncertainty. However, the models are very challenging to evaluate and constrain because they require extensive in situ measurements of the particle size distribution, number concentration, and chemical composition that are not available from global satellite observations. The Global Aerosol Synthesis and Science Project (GASSP) aims to improve the robustness of global aerosol models by combining new methodologies for quantifying model uncertainty, to create an extensive global dataset of aerosol in situ microphysical and chemical measurements, and to develop new ways to assess the uncertainty associated with comparing sparse point measurements with low-resolution models. GASSP has assembled over 45,000 hours of measurements from ships and aircraft as well as data from over 350 ground stations. The measurements have been harmonized into a standardized format that is easily used by modelers and nonspecialist users. Available measurements are extensive, but they are biased to polluted regions of the Northern Hemisphere, leaving large pristine regions and many continental areas poorly sampled. The aerosol radiative forcing uncertainty can be reduced using a rigorous model–data synthesis approach. Nevertheless, our research highlights significant remaining challenges because of the difficulty of constraining many interwoven model uncertainties simultaneously. Although the physical realism of global aerosol models still needs to be improved, the uncertainty in aerosol radiative forcing will be reduced most effectively by systematically and rigorously constraining the models using extensive syntheses of measurements.

Open access
Rob Cifelli
,
V. Chandrasekar
,
L. Herdman
,
D. D. Turner
,
A. B. White
,
T. I. Alcott
,
M. Anderson
,
P. Barnard
,
S. K. Biswas
,
M. Boucher
,
J. Bytheway
,
H. Chen
,
H. Cutler
,
J. M. English
,
L. Erikson
,
F. Junyent
,
D. J. Gottas
,
J. Jasperse
,
L. E. Johnson
,
J. Krebs
,
J. van de Lindt
,
J. Kim
,
M. Leon
,
Y. Ma
,
M. Marquis
,
W. Moninger
,
G. Pratt
,
C. Radhakrishnan
,
M. Shields
,
J. Spaulding
,
B. Tehranirad
, and
R. Webb

Abstract

Advanced Quantitative Precipitation Information (AQPI) is a synergistic project that combines observations and models to improve monitoring and forecasts of precipitation, streamflow, and coastal flooding in the San Francisco Bay Area. As an experimental system, AQPI leverages more than a decade of research, innovation, and implementation of a statewide, state-of-the-art network of observations, and development of the next generation of weather and coastal forecast models. AQPI was developed as a prototype in response to requests from the water management community for improved information on precipitation, riverine, and coastal conditions to inform their decision-making processes. Observation of precipitation in the complex Bay Area landscape of California’s coastal mountain ranges is known to be a challenging problem. But, with new advanced radar network techniques, AQPI is helping fill an important observational gap for this highly populated and vulnerable metropolitan area. The prototype AQPI system consists of improved weather radar data for precipitation estimation; additional surface measurements of precipitation, streamflow, and soil moisture; and a suite of integrated forecast modeling systems to improve situational awareness about current and future water conditions from sky to sea. Together these tools will help improve emergency preparedness and public response to prevent loss of life and destruction of property during extreme storms accompanied by heavy precipitation and high coastal water levels—especially high-moisture laden atmospheric rivers. The Bay Area AQPI system could potentially be replicated in other urban regions in California, the United States, and worldwide.

Open access
L. L. Pan
,
E. L. Atlas
,
R. J. Salawitch
,
S. B. Honomichl
,
J. F. Bresch
,
W. J. Randel
,
E. C. Apel
,
R. S. Hornbrook
,
A. J. Weinheimer
,
D. C. Anderson
,
S. J. Andrews
,
S. Baidar
,
S. P. Beaton
,
T. L. Campos
,
L. J. Carpenter
,
D. Chen
,
B. Dix
,
V. Donets
,
S. R. Hall
,
T. F. Hanisco
,
C. R. Homeyer
,
L. G. Huey
,
J. B. Jensen
,
L. Kaser
,
D. E. Kinnison
,
T. K. Koenig
,
J.-F. Lamarque
,
C. Liu
,
J. Luo
,
Z. J. Luo
,
D. D. Montzka
,
J. M. Nicely
,
R. B. Pierce
,
D. D. Riemer
,
T. Robinson
,
P. Romashkin
,
A. Saiz-Lopez
,
S. Schauffler
,
O. Shieh
,
M. H. Stell
,
K. Ullmann
,
G. Vaughan
,
R. Volkamer
, and
G. Wolfe

Abstract

The Convective Transport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) experiment was conducted from Guam (13.5°N, 144.8°E) during January–February 2014. Using the NSF/NCAR Gulfstream V research aircraft, the experiment investigated the photochemical environment over the tropical western Pacific (TWP) warm pool, a region of massive deep convection and the major pathway for air to enter the stratosphere during Northern Hemisphere (NH) winter. The new observations provide a wealth of information for quantifying the influence of convection on the vertical distributions of active species. The airborne in situ measurements up to 15-km altitude fill a significant gap by characterizing the abundance and altitude variation of a wide suite of trace gases. These measurements, together with observations of dynamical and microphysical parameters, provide significant new data for constraining and evaluating global chemistry–climate models. Measurements include precursor and product gas species of reactive halogen compounds that impact ozone in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. High-accuracy, in situ measurements of ozone obtained during CONTRAST quantify ozone concentration profiles in the upper troposphere, where previous observations from balloonborne ozonesondes were often near or below the limit of detection. CONTRAST was one of the three coordinated experiments to observe the TWP during January–February 2014. Together, CONTRAST, Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX), and Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST), using complementary capabilities of the three aircraft platforms as well as ground-based instrumentation, provide a comprehensive quantification of the regional distribution and vertical structure of natural and pollutant trace gases in the TWP during NH winter, from the oceanic boundary to the lower stratosphere.

Full access
J. Boutin
,
Y. Chao
,
W. E. Asher
,
T. Delcroix
,
R. Drucker
,
K. Drushka
,
N. Kolodziejczyk
,
T. Lee
,
N. Reul
,
G. Reverdin
,
J. Schanze
,
A. Soloviev
,
L. Yu
,
J. Anderson
,
L. Brucker
,
E. Dinnat
,
A. Santos-Garcia
,
W. L. Jones
,
C. Maes
,
T. Meissner
,
W. Tang
,
N. Vinogradova
, and
B. Ward

Abstract

Remote sensing of salinity using satellite-mounted microwave radiometers provides new perspectives for studying ocean dynamics and the global hydrological cycle. Calibration and validation of these measurements is challenging because satellite and in situ methods measure salinity differently. Microwave radiometers measure the salinity in the top few centimeters of the ocean, whereas most in situ observations are reported below a depth of a few meters. Additionally, satellites measure salinity as a spatial average over an area of about 100 × 100 km2. In contrast, in situ sensors provide pointwise measurements at the location of the sensor. Thus, the presence of vertical gradients in, and horizontal variability of, sea surface salinity complicates comparison of satellite and in situ measurements. This paper synthesizes present knowledge of the magnitude and the processes that contribute to the formation and evolution of vertical and horizontal variability in near-surface salinity. Rainfall, freshwater plumes, and evaporation can generate vertical gradients of salinity, and in some cases these gradients can be large enough to affect validation of satellite measurements. Similarly, mesoscale to submesoscale processes can lead to horizontal variability that can also affect comparisons of satellite data to in situ data. Comparisons between satellite and in situ salinity measurements must take into account both vertical stratification and horizontal variability.

Full access