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Alison Cobb
,
F. Martin Ralph
,
Vijay Tallapragada
,
Anna M. Wilson
,
Christopher A. Davis
,
Luca Delle Monache
,
James D. Doyle
,
Florian Pappenberger
,
Carolyn A. Reynolds
,
Aneesh Subramanian
,
Peter G. Black
,
Forest Cannon
,
Chris Castellano
,
Jason M. Cordeira
,
Jennifer S. Haase
,
Chad Hecht
,
Brian Kawzenuk
,
David A. Lavers
,
Michael J. Murphy Jr.
,
Jack Parrish
,
Ryan Rickert
,
Jonathan J. Rutz
,
Ryan Torn
,
Xingren Wu
, and
Minghua Zheng

Abstract

Atmospheric River Reconnaissance (AR Recon) is a targeted campaign that complements other sources of observational data, forming part of a diverse observing system. AR Recon 2021 operated for ten weeks from January 13 to March 22, with 29.5 Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs), 45 flights and 1142 successful dropsondes deployed in the northeast Pacific. With the availability of two WC-130J aircraft operated by the 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron (53 WRS), Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) and one National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aircraft Operations Center (AOC) G-IVSP aircraft, six sequences were accomplished, in which the same synoptic system was sampled over several days.

The principal aim was to gather observations to improve forecasts of landfalling atmospheric rivers on the U.S. West Coast. Sampling of other meteorological phenomena forecast to have downstream impacts over the U.S. was also considered. Alongside forecast improvement, observations were also gathered to address important scientific research questions, as part of a Research and Operations Partnership.

Targeted dropsonde observations were focused on essential atmospheric structures, primarily atmospheric rivers. Adjoint and ensemble sensitivities, mainly focusing on predictions of U.S. West Coast precipitation, provided complementary information on locations where additional observations may help to reduce the forecast uncertainty. Additionally, Airborne Radio Occultation (ARO) and tail radar were active during some flights, 30 drifting buoys were distributed, and 111 radiosondes were launched from four locations in California. Dropsonde, radiosonde and buoy data were available for assimilation in real-time into operational forecast models. Future work is planned to examine the impact of AR Recon 2021 data on model forecasts.

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F. Martin Ralph
,
Forest Cannon
,
Vijay Tallapragada
,
Christopher A. Davis
,
James D. Doyle
,
Florian Pappenberger
,
Aneesh Subramanian
,
Anna M. Wilson
,
David A. Lavers
,
Carolyn A. Reynolds
,
Jennifer S. Haase
,
Luca Centurioni
,
Bruce Ingleby
,
Jonathan J. Rutz
,
Jason M. Cordeira
,
Minghua Zheng
,
Chad Hecht
,
Brian Kawzenuk
, and
Luca Delle Monache
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Florence Rabier
,
Aurélie Bouchard
,
Eric Brun
,
Alexis Doerenbecher
,
Stéphanie Guedj
,
Vincent Guidard
,
Fatima Karbou
,
Vincent-Henri Peuch
,
Laaziz El Amraoui
,
Dominique Puech
,
Christophe Genthon
,
Ghislain Picard
,
Michael Town
,
Albert Hertzog
,
François Vial
,
Philippe Cocquerez
,
Stephen A. Cohn
,
Terry Hock
,
Jack Fox
,
Hal Cole
,
David Parsons
,
Jordan Powers
,
Keith Romberg
,
Joseph VanAndel
,
Terry Deshler
,
Jennifer Mercer
,
Jennifer S. Haase
,
Linnea Avallone
,
Lars Kalnajs
,
C. Roberto Mechoso
,
Andrew Tangborn
,
Andrea Pellegrini
,
Yves Frenot
,
Jean-Noël Thépaut
,
Anthony McNally
,
Gianpaolo Balsamo
, and
Peter Steinle

The Concordiasi project is making innovative observations of the atmosphere above Antarctica. The most important goals of the Concordiasi are as follows:

  • To enhance the accuracy of weather prediction and climate records in Antarctica through the assimilation of in situ and satellite data, with an emphasis on data provided by hyperspectral infrared sounders. The focus is on clouds, precipitation, and the mass budget of the ice sheets. The improvements in dynamical model analyses and forecasts will be used in chemical-transport models that describe the links between the polar vortex dynamics and ozone depletion, and to advance the under understanding of the Earth system by examining the interactions between Antarctica and lower latitudes.

  • To improve our understanding of microphysical and dynamical processes controlling the polar ozone, by providing the first quasi-Lagrangian observations of stratospheric ozone and particles, in addition to an improved characterization of the 3D polar vortex dynamics. Techniques for assimilating these Lagrangian observations are being developed.

A major Concordiasi component is a field experiment during the austral springs of 2008–10. The field activities in 2010 are based on a constellation of up to 18 long-duration stratospheric super-pressure balloons (SPBs) deployed from the McMurdo station. Six of these balloons will carry GPS receivers and in situ instruments measuring temperature, pressure, ozone, and particles. Twelve of the balloons will release dropsondes on demand for measuring atmospheric parameters. Lastly, radiosounding measurements are collected at various sites, including the Concordia station.

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