Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 24 items for

  • Author or Editor: Nicholas P. Klingaman x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Joshua Talib
,
Steven J. Woolnough
,
Nicholas P. Klingaman
, and
Christopher E. Holloway

Abstract

Studies have shown that the location and structure of the simulated intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is sensitive to the treatment of sub-gridscale convection and cloud–radiation interactions. This sensitivity remains in idealized aquaplanet experiments with fixed surface temperatures. However, studies have not considered the role of cloud-radiative effects (CRE; atmospheric heating due to cloud–radiation interactions) in the sensitivity of the ITCZ to the treatment of convection. We use an atmospheric energy input (AEI) framework to explore how the CRE modulates the sensitivity of the ITCZ to convective mixing in aquaplanet simulations. Simulations show a sensitivity of the ITCZ to convective mixing, with stronger convective mixing favoring a single ITCZ. For simulations with a single ITCZ, the CRE maintains the positive equatorial AEI. To explore the role of the CRE further, we prescribe the CRE as either zero or a meridionally and diurnally varying climatology. Removing the CRE is associated with a reduced equatorial AEI and an increase in the range of convective mixing rates that produce a double ITCZ. Prescribing the CRE reduces the sensitivity of the ITCZ to convective mixing by 50%. In prescribed-CRE simulations, other AEI components, in particular the surface latent heat flux, modulate the sensitivity of the AEI to convective mixing. Analysis of the meridional moist static energy transport shows that a shallower Hadley circulation can produce an equatorward energy transport at low latitudes even with equatorial ascent.

Open access
Nicholas P. Klingaman
,
Steven J. Woolnough
,
Hilary Weller
, and
Julia M. Slingo

Abstract

A newly assembled atmosphere–ocean coupled model, called HadKPP, is described and then used to determine the effects of subdaily air–sea coupling and fine near-surface ocean vertical resolution on the representation of the Northern Hemisphere summer intraseasonal oscillation. HadKPP comprises the Hadley Centre atmospheric model coupled to the K-Profile Parameterization ocean boundary layer model.

Four 30-member ensembles were performed that vary in ocean vertical resolution between 1 and 10 m and in coupling frequency between 3 and 24 h. The 10-m, 24-h ensemble exhibited roughly 60% of the observed 30–50-day variability in sea surface temperatures and rainfall and very weak northward propagation. Enhancing only the vertical resolution or only the coupling frequency produced modest improvements in variability and just a standing intraseasonal oscillation. Only the 1-m, 3-h configuration generated organized, northward-propagating convection similar to observations. Subdaily surface forcing produced stronger upper-ocean temperature anomalies in quadrature with anomalous convection, which likely affected lower-atmospheric stability ahead of the convection, causing propagation. Well-resolved air–sea coupling did not improve the eastward propagation of the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation in this model.

Upper-ocean vertical mixing and diurnal variability in coupled models must be improved to accurately resolve and simulate tropical subseasonal variability. In HadKPP, the mere presence of air–sea coupling was not sufficient to generate an intraseasonal oscillation resembling observations.

Full access
Nicholas P. Klingaman
,
Hilary Weller
,
Julia M. Slingo
, and
Peter M. Inness

Abstract

The northward-propagating intraseasonal (30–40 day) oscillation (NPISO) between active and break monsoon phases exerts a critical control on summer-season rainfall totals over India. Advances in diagnosing these events and comprehending the physical mechanisms behind them may hold the potential for improving their predictability. While previous studies have attempted to extract active and break events from reanalysis data to elucidate a composite life cycle, those studies have relied on first isolating the intraseasonal variability in the record (e.g., through bandpass filtering, removing harmonics, or empirical orthogonal function analysis). Additionally, the underlying physical processes that previous studies have proposed have varied, both among themselves and with studies using general circulation models.

A simple index is defined for diagnosing NPISO events in observations and reanalysis, based on lag correlations between outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) over India and over the equatorial Indian Ocean. This index is the first to use unfiltered OLR observations and so does not specifically isolate intraseasonal periods. A composite NPISO life cycle based on this index is similar to previous composites in OLR and surface winds, demonstrating that the dominance of the intraseasonal variability in the monsoon climate system eliminates the need for more complex methods (e.g., time filtering or EOF analysis) to identify the NPISO. This study is also among the first to examine the NPISO using a long-period record of high-resolution sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager. Application of this index to those SSTs demonstrates that SST anomalies exist in near quadrature with convection, as suggested by recent coupled model studies. Analysis of the phase relationships between atmospheric fields and SSTs indicates that the atmosphere likely forced the SST anomalies. The results of this lag-correlation analysis suggest that the oscillation serves as its own most reliable—and perhaps only—predictor, and that signals preceding an NPISO event appear first over the Indian subcontinent, not the equatorial Indian Ocean where the events originate.

Full access
Nicholas P. Klingaman
,
Peter M. Inness
,
Hilary Weller
, and
Julia M. Slingo

Abstract

While the Indian monsoon exhibits substantial variability on interannual time scales, its intraseasonal variability (ISV) is of greater magnitude and hence of critical importance for monsoon predictability. This ISV comprises a 30–50-day northward-propagating oscillation (NPISO) between active and break events of enhanced and reduced rainfall, respectively, over the subcontinent. Recent studies have implied that coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) were better able to simulate the NPISO than their atmosphere-only counterparts (AGCMs). These studies have forced their AGCMs with SSTs from coupled integrations or observations from satellite-based infrared sounders, both of which underestimate the ISV of tropical SSTs.

The authors have forced the 1.25° × 0.83° Hadley Centre Atmospheric Model (HadAM3) with a daily, high-resolution, observed SST analysis from the United Kingdom National Center for Ocean Forecasting that contains greater ISV in the Indian Ocean than past products. One ensemble of simulations was forced by daily SSTs, a second with monthly means, and a third with 5-day means. The ensemble with daily SSTs displayed significantly greater variability in 30–50-day rainfall across the monsoon domain than the ensemble with monthly mean SSTs, variability similar to satellite-derived precipitation analyses. Individual ensemble members with daily SSTs contained intraseasonal events with a strength, a propagation speed, and an organization that closely matched observed events. When ensemble members with monthly mean SSTs displayed power in intraseasonal rainfall, the events were weak and disorganized, and they propagated too quickly. The ensemble with 5-day means had less intraseasonal rainfall variability than the ensemble with daily SSTs but still produced coherent NPISO-like events, indicating that SST variability at frequencies higher than 5 days contributes to but is not critical for simulations of the NPISO.

It is concluded that high-frequency SST anomalies not only increased variance in intraseasonal rainfall but helped to organize and maintain coherent NPISO-like convective events. Further, the results indicate that an AGCM can respond to realistic and frequent SST forcing to generate an NPISO that closely resembles observations. These results have important implications for simulating the NPISO in AGCMs and coupled climate models, as well as for predicting tropical ISV in short- and medium-range weather forecasts.

Full access
Peter M. F. Sheehan
,
Adrian J. Matthews
,
Benjamin G. M. Webber
,
Alejandra Sanchez-Franks
,
Nicholas P. Klingaman
, and
P. N. Vinayachandran

Abstract

The southwest monsoon delivers over 70% of India’s annual rainfall and is crucial to the success of agriculture across much of South Asia. Monsoon precipitation is known to be sensitive to sea surface temperature (SST) in the Bay of Bengal (BoB). Here, we use a configuration of the Unified Model of the Met Office coupled to an ocean mixed layer model to investigate the role of upper-ocean features in the BoB on southwest monsoon precipitation. We focus on the pronounced zonal and meridional SST gradients characteristic of the BoB; the zonal gradient in particular has an as-yet unknown effect on monsoon rainfall. We find that the zonal SST gradient is responsible for a 50% decrease in rainfall over the southern BoB (approximately 5 mm day−1), and a 50% increase in rainfall over Bangladesh and northern India (approximately 1 mm day−1). This increase is remotely forced by a strengthening of the monsoon Hadley circulation. The meridional SST gradient acts to decrease precipitation over the BoB itself, similarly to the zonal SST gradient, but does not have comparable effects over land. The impacts of barrier layers and high-salinity subsurface water are also investigated, but neither has significant effects on monsoon precipitation in this model; the influence of barrier layers on precipitation is felt in the months after the southwest monsoon. Models should accurately represent oceanic processes that directly influence BoB SST, such as the BoB cold pool, in order to faithfully represent monsoon rainfall.

Open access
Liang Guo
,
Ruud J. van der Ent
,
Nicholas P. Klingaman
,
Marie-Estelle Demory
,
Pier Luigi Vidale
,
Andrew G. Turner
,
Claudia C. Stephan
, and
Amulya Chevuturi

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the moisture sources that supply East Asian (EA) precipitation and their interannual variability. Moisture sources are tracked using the Water Accounting Model-2layers (WAM-2layers), based on the Eulerian framework. WAM-2layers is applied to five subregions over EA, driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis from 1979 to 2015. Due to differences in regional atmospheric circulation and in hydrological and topographic features, the mean moisture sources vary among EA subregions. The tropical oceanic source dominates southeastern EA, while the extratropical continental source dominates other EA subregions. The moisture sources experience large seasonal variations, due to the seasonal cycle of the EA monsoon, the freeze–thaw cycle of the Eurasian continent, and local moisture recycling over the Tibetan Plateau. The interannual variability of moisture sources is linked to interannual modes of the coupled ocean–atmosphere system. The negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation increases moisture transport to northwestern EA in winter by driving a southward shift in the midlatitude westerly jet over the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, and the Caspian Sea. Atmospheric moisture lifetime is also reduced due to the enhanced westerlies. In summers following El Niños, an anticyclonic anomaly over the western North Pacific increases moisture supplied from the South China Sea to the southeastern EA and shortens the traveling distance. A stronger Somali Jet in summer increases moisture to the Tibetan Plateau and therefore increases precipitation over the eastern Tibetan Plateau. The methods and findings in this study can be used to evaluate hydrological features in climate simulations.

Open access
Liang Guo
,
Nicholas P. Klingaman
,
Pier Luigi Vidale
,
Andrew G. Turner
,
Marie-Estelle Demory
, and
Alison Cobb

Abstract

The coastal region of East Asia (EA) is one of the regions with the most frequent impacts from tropical cyclones (TCs). In this study, rainfall and moisture transports related to TCs are measured over EA, and the contribution of TCs to the regional water budget is compared with other contributors, especially the mean circulation of the EA summer monsoon (EASM). Based on ERA-Interim reanalysis (1979–2012), the trajectories of TCs are identified using an objective feature tracking method. Over 60% of TCs occur from July to October (JASO). During JASO, TC rainfall contributes 10%–30% of the monthly total rainfall over the coastal region of EA; this contribution is highest over the south/southeast coast of China in September. TCs make a larger contribution to daily extreme rainfall (above the 95th percentile): 50%–60% over the EA coast and as high as 70% over Taiwan Island. Compared with the mean EASM, TCs transport less moisture over EA. However, as the peak of the mean seasonal cycle of TCs lags two months behind that of the EASM, the moisture transported by TCs is an important source for the water budget over the EA region when the EASM withdraws. This moisture transport is largely performed by westward-moving TCs. These results improve understanding of the water cycle of EA and provide a useful test bed for evaluating and improving seasonal forecasts and coupled climate models.

Full access
Wenjun Zhang
,
Haiyan Li
,
Fei-Fei Jin
,
Malte F. Stuecker
,
Andrew G. Turner
, and
Nicholas P. Klingaman

Abstract

Previous studies documented that a distinct southward shift of central Pacific low-level wind anomalies occurring during the ENSO decaying phase is caused by an interaction between the western Pacific annual cycle and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability. The present study finds that the meridional movement of the central Pacific wind anomalies appears only during traditional eastern Pacific El Niño (EP El Niño) events rather than in central Pacific El Niño (CP El Niño) events in which sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are confined to the central Pacific. The zonal structure of ENSO-related SST anomalies therefore has an important effect on meridional asymmetry in the associated atmospheric response and its modulation by the annual cycle. In contrast to EP El Niño events, the SST anomalies of CP El Niño events extend farther west toward the warm pool region with its climatological warm SSTs. In the warm pool region, relatively small SST anomalies are thus able to excite convection anomalies on both sides of the equator, even with a meridionally asymmetric SST background state. Therefore, almost meridionally symmetric precipitation and wind anomalies are observed over the central Pacific during the decaying phase of CP El Niño events. The SST anomaly pattern of La Niña events is similar to CP El Niño events with a reversed sign. Accordingly, no distinct southward displacement of the atmospheric response occurs over the central Pacific during the La Niña decaying phase. These results have important implications for ENSO climate impacts over East Asia, since the anomalous low-level anticyclone over the western North Pacific is an integral part of the annual cycle–modulated ENSO response.

Full access
Andrew D. King
,
Nicholas P. Klingaman
,
Lisa V. Alexander
,
Markus G. Donat
,
Nicolas C. Jourdain
, and
Penelope Maher

Abstract

Leading patterns of observed monthly extreme rainfall variability in Australia are examined using an empirical orthogonal teleconnection (EOT) method. Extreme rainfall variability is more closely related to mean rainfall variability during austral summer than in winter. The leading EOT patterns of extreme rainfall explain less variance in Australia-wide extreme rainfall than is the case for mean rainfall EOTs. The authors illustrate that, as with mean rainfall, the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has the strongest association with warm-season extreme rainfall variability, while in the cool season the primary drivers are atmospheric blocking and the subtropical ridge. The Indian Ocean dipole and southern annular mode also have significant relationships with patterns of variability during austral winter and spring. Leading patterns of summer extreme rainfall variability have predictability several months ahead from Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and as much as a year in advance from Indian Ocean SSTs. Predictability from the Pacific is greater for wetter-than-average summer months than for months that are drier than average, whereas for the Indian Ocean the relationship has greater linearity. Several cool-season EOTs are associated with midlatitude synoptic-scale patterns along the south and east coasts. These patterns have common atmospheric signatures denoting moist onshore flow and strong cyclonic anomalies often to the north of a blocking anticyclone. Tropical cyclone activity is observed to have significant relationships with some warm-season EOTs. This analysis shows that extreme rainfall variability in Australia can be related to remote drivers and local synoptic-scale patterns throughout the year.

Full access
Nicholas P. Klingaman
,
Matthew Young
,
Amulya Chevuturi
,
Bruno Guimaraes
,
Liang Guo
,
Steven J. Woolnough
,
Caio A. S. Coelho
,
Paulo Y. Kubota
, and
Christopher E. Holloway

Abstract

Skillful and reliable predictions of week-to-week rainfall variations in South America, two to three weeks ahead, are essential to protect lives, livelihoods, and ecosystems. We evaluate forecast performance for weekly rainfall in extended austral summer (November–March) in four contemporary subseasonal systems, including a new Brazilian model, at 1–5-week leads for 1999–2010. We measure performance by the correlation coefficient (in time) between predicted and observed rainfall; we measure skill by the Brier skill score for rainfall terciles against a climatological reference forecast. We assess unconditional performance (i.e., regardless of initial condition) and conditional performance based on the initial phase of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). All models display substantial mean rainfall biases, including dry biases in Amazonia and wet biases near the Andes, which are established by week 1 and vary little thereafter. Unconditional performance extends to week 2 in all regions except for Amazonia and the Andes, but to week 3 only over northern, northeastern, and southeastern South America. Skill for upper- and lower-tercile rainfall extends only to week 1. Conditional performance is not systematically or significantly higher than unconditional performance; ENSO and MJO events provide limited “windows of opportunity” for improved S2S predictions that are region and model dependent. Conditional performance may be degraded by errors in predicted ENSO and MJO teleconnections to regional rainfall, even at short lead times.

Open access