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## Abstract

A Hamiltonian formulation for the dynamics and thermodynamics of a compressible, rotating, binary fluid subject to gravity is developed. Here, binary refers to the presence of two components of the fluid, such as solids dissolved in a liquid or gaseous and liquid water existing along with dry air. These fluids are idealized in that the influences of diffusion processes are ignored and the binary flow is restricted to a single velocity.

The equations are presented in generic form applicable to an arbitrary binary geophysical flow. The relevant Poisson bracket satisfies Jacobi's identity. Three distinct Casimir invariants are described. The first reflects the conservation of entropy and concentration of the minor component. The second is a consequence of the conservation of the absolute circulation on curves formed by the intersection of surfaces of constant entropy with surfaces of constant concentration. The third is a generic potential vorticity of the form (** ω** · ∇

*λ*)/

*ρ.*Here,

**is the absolute vorticity,**

*ω**ρ*is the total density of the fluid, and

*λ*is any thermodynamic variable. For example,

*λ*can be the pressure, density, temperature, or mixing ratio as well as the more common choice of potential temperature.

Available energy of the system is defined locally in the finite-amplitude as well as in the small-amplitude limit. Both definitions are partitioned into available potential and available elastic energies.

A linear stability analysis indicates that the fluid is statically stable provided the square of the sound speed is positive, the total density decreases with height, and the square of a suitably defined buoyancy frequency is positive.

The formulation is applicable to a salty ocean and to a moist atmosphere. For the atmosphere, the full theory holds in the presence of either liquid water or ice in equilibrium with its vapor.

## Abstract

A Hamiltonian formulation for the dynamics and thermodynamics of a compressible, rotating, binary fluid subject to gravity is developed. Here, binary refers to the presence of two components of the fluid, such as solids dissolved in a liquid or gaseous and liquid water existing along with dry air. These fluids are idealized in that the influences of diffusion processes are ignored and the binary flow is restricted to a single velocity.

The equations are presented in generic form applicable to an arbitrary binary geophysical flow. The relevant Poisson bracket satisfies Jacobi's identity. Three distinct Casimir invariants are described. The first reflects the conservation of entropy and concentration of the minor component. The second is a consequence of the conservation of the absolute circulation on curves formed by the intersection of surfaces of constant entropy with surfaces of constant concentration. The third is a generic potential vorticity of the form (** ω** · ∇

*λ*)/

*ρ.*Here,

**is the absolute vorticity,**

*ω**ρ*is the total density of the fluid, and

*λ*is any thermodynamic variable. For example,

*λ*can be the pressure, density, temperature, or mixing ratio as well as the more common choice of potential temperature.

Available energy of the system is defined locally in the finite-amplitude as well as in the small-amplitude limit. Both definitions are partitioned into available potential and available elastic energies.

A linear stability analysis indicates that the fluid is statically stable provided the square of the sound speed is positive, the total density decreases with height, and the square of a suitably defined buoyancy frequency is positive.

The formulation is applicable to a salty ocean and to a moist atmosphere. For the atmosphere, the full theory holds in the presence of either liquid water or ice in equilibrium with its vapor.

## Abstract

An alternative derivation of the available energy for a geophysical fluid system is presented. It is shown that determination of the equilibrium temperature of the system by the minimization of an energy availability function is equivalent to that found by the vanishing of the entropy difference between the fluid and its equilibrium state. Applications to the atmosphere and the ocean are presented.

## Abstract

An alternative derivation of the available energy for a geophysical fluid system is presented. It is shown that determination of the equilibrium temperature of the system by the minimization of an energy availability function is equivalent to that found by the vanishing of the entropy difference between the fluid and its equilibrium state. Applications to the atmosphere and the ocean are presented.

## Abstract

The final equilibrium state of Lamb's hydrostatic adjustment problem is found for finite amplitude heating. Lamb's problem consists of the response of a compressible atmosphere to an instantaneous, horizontally homogeneous heating. Results are presented for both isothermal and nonisothermal atmospheres.

As in the linear problem, the fluid displacements are confined to the heated layer and to the region aloft with no displacement of the fluid below the heating. The region above the heating is displaced uniformly upward for heating and downward for cooling. The amplitudes of the displacements are larger for cooling than for warming.

Examination of the energetics reveals that the fraction of the heat deposited into the acoustic modes increases linearly with the amplitude of the heating. This fraction is typically small (e.g., 0.06% for a uniform warming of 1 K) and is essentially independent of the lapse rate of the base-state atmosphere. In contrast a fixed fraction of the available energy generated by the heating goes into the acoustic modes. This fraction (e.g., 12% for a standard tropospheric lapse rate) agrees with the linear result and increases with increasing stability of the base-state atmosphere.

The compressible results are compared to solutions using various forms of the soundproof equations. None of the soundproof equations predict the finite amplitude solutions accurately. However, in the small amplitude limit, only the equations for deep convection advanced by Dutton and Fichtl predict the thermodynamic state variables accurately for a nonisothermal base-state atmosphere.

## Abstract

The final equilibrium state of Lamb's hydrostatic adjustment problem is found for finite amplitude heating. Lamb's problem consists of the response of a compressible atmosphere to an instantaneous, horizontally homogeneous heating. Results are presented for both isothermal and nonisothermal atmospheres.

As in the linear problem, the fluid displacements are confined to the heated layer and to the region aloft with no displacement of the fluid below the heating. The region above the heating is displaced uniformly upward for heating and downward for cooling. The amplitudes of the displacements are larger for cooling than for warming.

Examination of the energetics reveals that the fraction of the heat deposited into the acoustic modes increases linearly with the amplitude of the heating. This fraction is typically small (e.g., 0.06% for a uniform warming of 1 K) and is essentially independent of the lapse rate of the base-state atmosphere. In contrast a fixed fraction of the available energy generated by the heating goes into the acoustic modes. This fraction (e.g., 12% for a standard tropospheric lapse rate) agrees with the linear result and increases with increasing stability of the base-state atmosphere.

The compressible results are compared to solutions using various forms of the soundproof equations. None of the soundproof equations predict the finite amplitude solutions accurately. However, in the small amplitude limit, only the equations for deep convection advanced by Dutton and Fichtl predict the thermodynamic state variables accurately for a nonisothermal base-state atmosphere.

## Abstract

Barotropic simulations of the East African jet are extended to include the Arabian Sea branch of the flow and to allow for flow over the mountains of Africa. Large-scale mass source-sink forcing, present to the east of the model orography, drives the low-level circulation.

Many features of the southeast trades, cross-equatorial flow and southwest monsoon are simulated. Among them are the separation of the jet from the African highlands, a wind speed maximum over the Arabian Sea and a reinforcement of the southwest monsoon by the Arabian northerlies. Splitting of the jet over the Arabian Sea is not simulated.

Starting from a state of rest, a well-developed southwest monsoon is achieved in a week of simulated time. Inclusion of a prescribed Southern Hemisphere midlatitude disturbance excites a significant response in the cross-equatorial flow, even though flow is permitted over the African mountains. Downstream, the surges excite a response over both the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The bay response lags that over the sea by one to two days and is a factor of 2 weaker. Despite the satisfaction of the necessary condition for barotropic instability, no signs of instability appear during the onset, surge or steady-state phases of the simulations.

## Abstract

Barotropic simulations of the East African jet are extended to include the Arabian Sea branch of the flow and to allow for flow over the mountains of Africa. Large-scale mass source-sink forcing, present to the east of the model orography, drives the low-level circulation.

Many features of the southeast trades, cross-equatorial flow and southwest monsoon are simulated. Among them are the separation of the jet from the African highlands, a wind speed maximum over the Arabian Sea and a reinforcement of the southwest monsoon by the Arabian northerlies. Splitting of the jet over the Arabian Sea is not simulated.

Starting from a state of rest, a well-developed southwest monsoon is achieved in a week of simulated time. Inclusion of a prescribed Southern Hemisphere midlatitude disturbance excites a significant response in the cross-equatorial flow, even though flow is permitted over the African mountains. Downstream, the surges excite a response over both the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The bay response lags that over the sea by one to two days and is a factor of 2 weaker. Despite the satisfaction of the necessary condition for barotropic instability, no signs of instability appear during the onset, surge or steady-state phases of the simulations.

## Abstract

The effect of a vertical incident wind shear on rotating airflow over a mountain ridge is discussed physically from a variety of perspectives. The apparent paradox that the shear reduces both the vertical displacement of fluid parcels aloft and the mountain anticyclone is resolved. The importance of meridional displacements in representing the static stability field is also demonstrated.

## Abstract

The effect of a vertical incident wind shear on rotating airflow over a mountain ridge is discussed physically from a variety of perspectives. The apparent paradox that the shear reduces both the vertical displacement of fluid parcels aloft and the mountain anticyclone is resolved. The importance of meridional displacements in representing the static stability field is also demonstrated.

## Abstract

The virtual temperature of a moist air parcel is defined as the temperature of a dry air parcel having the same mass, volume, and pressure. It is shown here that a virtual air parcel can be formed diabatically by warming the parcel to its virtual temperature while replacing its water vapor with the equivalent mass of dry air under isobaric, isochoric conditions. Conversely a saturated virtual air parcel can be formed diabatically by cooling the parcel to its saturated virtual temperature while replacing some of its dry air with the equivalent mass of water vapor under isobaric, isochoric conditions. These processes of virtualization can be represented on a vapor pressure–temperature diagram. This diagram facilitates the comparison of the relative density of two moist air parcels at the same pressure. The effects of liquid and/or solid water can also be included.

## Abstract

The virtual temperature of a moist air parcel is defined as the temperature of a dry air parcel having the same mass, volume, and pressure. It is shown here that a virtual air parcel can be formed diabatically by warming the parcel to its virtual temperature while replacing its water vapor with the equivalent mass of dry air under isobaric, isochoric conditions. Conversely a saturated virtual air parcel can be formed diabatically by cooling the parcel to its saturated virtual temperature while replacing some of its dry air with the equivalent mass of water vapor under isobaric, isochoric conditions. These processes of virtualization can be represented on a vapor pressure–temperature diagram. This diagram facilitates the comparison of the relative density of two moist air parcels at the same pressure. The effects of liquid and/or solid water can also be included.

## Abstract

The equations describing the dynamics and thermodynamics of cloudy air are derived using the theories of multicomponent fluids and multiphase flows. The formulation is completely general and allows the hydrometeors to have temperatures and velocities that differ from those of the dry air and water vapor. The equations conserve mass, momentum, and total thermodynamic energy. They form a complete set once terms describing the radiative processes and the microphysical processes of condensation, sublimation, and freezing are provided.

An equation for the total entropy documents the entropy sources for multitemperature flows that include the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between the hydrometeors and the moist air. It is shown, for example, that the evaporation of raindrops in unsaturated air need not produce an increase in entropy when the drops are cooler than the air.

An expression for the potential vorticity in terms of the density of the moist air and the virtual potential temperature is shown to be the correct extension of Ertel's potential vorticity to moist flows. This virtual potential vorticity, along with the density field of the hydrometeors, can be inverted to obtain the other flow variables for a balanced flow.

In their most general form the equations include prognostic equations for the hydrometeors' temperature and velocity. Diagnostic equations for these fields are shown to be valid provided the diffusive timescales of heat and momentum are small compared to the dynamic timescales of interest. As a consequence of this approximation, the forces and heating acting on the hydrometeors are added to those acting on the moist air. Then the momentum equation for the moist air contains a drag force proportional to the weight of the hydrometeors, a hydrometeor loading. Similarly, the thermal energy equation for the moist air contains the heating of the hydrometeors. This additional heating of the moist air implies a diabatic loading for which the heating of the hydrometeors is realized by the moist air.

The validity of the diagnostic equations fails for large raindrops, hail, and graupel. In these cases the thermal diffusive timescales of the hydrometeors can be several minutes, and prognostic rather than diagnostic equations for their temperatures must be solved. However, their diagnostic momentum equations remain valid.

Anelastic and Boussinesq versions of the equations are also described.

## Abstract

The equations describing the dynamics and thermodynamics of cloudy air are derived using the theories of multicomponent fluids and multiphase flows. The formulation is completely general and allows the hydrometeors to have temperatures and velocities that differ from those of the dry air and water vapor. The equations conserve mass, momentum, and total thermodynamic energy. They form a complete set once terms describing the radiative processes and the microphysical processes of condensation, sublimation, and freezing are provided.

An equation for the total entropy documents the entropy sources for multitemperature flows that include the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between the hydrometeors and the moist air. It is shown, for example, that the evaporation of raindrops in unsaturated air need not produce an increase in entropy when the drops are cooler than the air.

An expression for the potential vorticity in terms of the density of the moist air and the virtual potential temperature is shown to be the correct extension of Ertel's potential vorticity to moist flows. This virtual potential vorticity, along with the density field of the hydrometeors, can be inverted to obtain the other flow variables for a balanced flow.

In their most general form the equations include prognostic equations for the hydrometeors' temperature and velocity. Diagnostic equations for these fields are shown to be valid provided the diffusive timescales of heat and momentum are small compared to the dynamic timescales of interest. As a consequence of this approximation, the forces and heating acting on the hydrometeors are added to those acting on the moist air. Then the momentum equation for the moist air contains a drag force proportional to the weight of the hydrometeors, a hydrometeor loading. Similarly, the thermal energy equation for the moist air contains the heating of the hydrometeors. This additional heating of the moist air implies a diabatic loading for which the heating of the hydrometeors is realized by the moist air.

The validity of the diagnostic equations fails for large raindrops, hail, and graupel. In these cases the thermal diffusive timescales of the hydrometeors can be several minutes, and prognostic rather than diagnostic equations for their temperatures must be solved. However, their diagnostic momentum equations remain valid.

Anelastic and Boussinesq versions of the equations are also described.

## Abstract

The role of the ambient stratification in semigeostrophic surface frontogenesis is examined. Model fronts forming in regions of large static stability 1) are weaker, 2) are tilted more toward the horizontal, and 3) propagate more slowly toward the warm air than fronts forming in regions of small static stability.

These results are discussed in light of the differences between warm and cold fronts.

## Abstract

The role of the ambient stratification in semigeostrophic surface frontogenesis is examined. Model fronts forming in regions of large static stability 1) are weaker, 2) are tilted more toward the horizontal, and 3) propagate more slowly toward the warm air than fronts forming in regions of small static stability.

These results are discussed in light of the differences between warm and cold fronts.

## Abstract

The total potential energy of the atmosphere is the sum of its internal and gravitational energies. The portion of this total energy available to be converted into kinetic energy is determined relative to an isothermal, hydrostatic, equilibrium atmosphere that is convectively and dynamically “dead.” The temperature of this equilibrium state is determined by minimization of a generalized Gibbs function defined between the atmosphere and its equilibrium. Thus, this function represents the maximum amount of total energy that can be converted into kinetic energy and, hence, the available energy of the atmosphere. This general approach includes the effects of terrain, moisture, and hydrometeors. Applications are presented for both individual soundings and idealized baroclinic zones. An algorithm partitions the available energy into available baroclinic and available convective energies. Estimates of the available energetics of the general circulation suggest that atmospheric motions are primarily driven by moist and dry fluxes of exergy from the earth’s surface with an efficiency of about two-thirds.

## Abstract

The total potential energy of the atmosphere is the sum of its internal and gravitational energies. The portion of this total energy available to be converted into kinetic energy is determined relative to an isothermal, hydrostatic, equilibrium atmosphere that is convectively and dynamically “dead.” The temperature of this equilibrium state is determined by minimization of a generalized Gibbs function defined between the atmosphere and its equilibrium. Thus, this function represents the maximum amount of total energy that can be converted into kinetic energy and, hence, the available energy of the atmosphere. This general approach includes the effects of terrain, moisture, and hydrometeors. Applications are presented for both individual soundings and idealized baroclinic zones. An algorithm partitions the available energy into available baroclinic and available convective energies. Estimates of the available energetics of the general circulation suggest that atmospheric motions are primarily driven by moist and dry fluxes of exergy from the earth’s surface with an efficiency of about two-thirds.

## Abstract

No abstract available.

## Abstract

No abstract available.