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V. K. Arora
,
G. J. Boer
,
J. R. Christian
,
C. L. Curry
,
K. L. Denman
,
K. Zahariev
,
G. M. Flato
,
J. F. Scinocca
,
W. J. Merryfield
, and
W. G. Lee

Abstract

The simulation of atmospheric–land–ocean CO2 exchange for the 1850–2000 period offers the possibility of testing and calibrating the carbon budget in earth system models by comparing the simulated changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and in land and ocean uptake with observation-based information. In particular, some of the uncertainties associated with the treatment of land use change (LUC) and the role of down regulation in affecting the strength of CO2 fertilization for terrestrial photosynthesis are assessed using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis Earth System Model (CanESM1). LUC emissions may be specified as an external source of CO2 or calculated interactively based on estimated changes in crop area. The evidence for photosynthetic down regulation is reviewed and an empirically based representation is implemented and tested in the model. Four fully coupled simulations are performed: with and without terrestrial photosynthesis down regulation and with interactively determined or specified LUC emissions. Simulations without terrestrial photosynthesis down regulation yield 15–20 ppm lower atmospheric CO2 by the end of the twentieth century, compared to observations, regardless of the LUC approach used because of higher carbon uptake by land. Implementation of down regulation brings simulated values of atmospheric CO2 and land and ocean carbon uptake closer to observation-based values. The use of specified LUC emissions yields a large source in the tropics during the 1981–2000 period, which is inconsistent with studies suggesting the tropics to be near-neutral or small carbon sinks. The annual cycle of simulated global averaged CO2, dominated by the Northern Hemisphere terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration cycles, is reasonably well reproduced, as is the latitudinal distribution of CO2 and the dependence of interhemispheric CO2 gradient on fossil fuel emissions. The empirical approach used here offers a reasonable method of implementing down regulation in coupled carbon–climate models in the absence of a more explicit biogeochemical representation.

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William J. Merryfield
,
Woo-Sung Lee
,
George J. Boer
,
Viatcheslav V. Kharin
,
John F. Scinocca
,
Gregory M. Flato
,
R. S. Ajayamohan
,
John C. Fyfe
,
Youmin Tang
, and
Saroja Polavarapu

Abstract

The Canadian Seasonal to Interannual Prediction System (CanSIPS) became operational at Environment Canada's Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) in December 2011, replacing CMC's previous two-tier system. CanSIPS is a two-model forecasting system that combines ensemble forecasts from the Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis (CCCma) Coupled Climate Model, versions 3 and 4 (CanCM3 and CanCM4, respectively). Mean climate as well as climate trends and variability in these models are evaluated in freely running historical simulations. Initial conditions for CanSIPS forecasts are obtained from an ensemble of coupled assimilation runs. These runs assimilate gridded atmospheric analyses by means of a procedure that resembles the incremental analysis update technique, but introduces only a fraction of the analysis increment in order that differences between ensemble members reflect the magnitude of observational uncertainties. The land surface is initialized through its response to the assimilative meteorology, whereas sea ice concentration and sea surface temperature are relaxed toward gridded observational values. The subsurface ocean is initialized through surface forcing provided by the assimilation run, together with an offline variational assimilation of gridded observational temperatures followed by an adjustment of the salinity field to preserve static stability. The performance of CanSIPS historical forecasts initialized every month over the period 1981–2010 is documented in a companion paper. The CanCM4 model and the initialization procedures developed for CanSIPS have been employed as well for decadal forecasts, including those contributing to phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project.

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Arthur J. Miller
,
Michael A. Alexander
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George J. Boer
,
Fei Chai
,
Ken Denman
,
David J. Erickson III
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Robert Frouin
,
Albert J. Gabric
,
Edward A. Laws
,
Marlon R. Lewis
,
Zhengyu Liu
,
Ragu Murtugudde
,
Shoichiro Nakamoto
,
Douglas J. Neilson
,
Joel R. Norris
,
J. Carter Ohlmann
,
R. Ian Perry
,
Niklas Schneider
,
Karen M. Shell
, and
Axel Timmermann
Full access
Vivek K. Arora
,
George J. Boer
,
Pierre Friedlingstein
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Michael Eby
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Chris D. Jones
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James R. Christian
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Gordon Bonan
,
Laurent Bopp
,
Victor Brovkin
,
Patricia Cadule
,
Tomohiro Hajima
,
Tatiana Ilyina
,
Keith Lindsay
,
Jerry F. Tjiputra
, and
Tongwen Wu

Abstract

The magnitude and evolution of parameters that characterize feedbacks in the coupled carbon–climate system are compared across nine Earth system models (ESMs). The analysis is based on results from biogeochemically, radiatively, and fully coupled simulations in which CO2 increases at a rate of 1% yr−1. These simulations are part of phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The CO2 fluxes between the atmosphere and underlying land and ocean respond to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and to changes in temperature and other climate variables. The carbon–concentration and carbon–climate feedback parameters characterize the response of the CO2 flux between the atmosphere and the underlying surface to these changes. Feedback parameters are calculated using two different approaches. The two approaches are equivalent and either may be used to calculate the contribution of the feedback terms to diagnosed cumulative emissions. The contribution of carbon–concentration feedback to diagnosed cumulative emissions that are consistent with the 1% increasing CO2 concentration scenario is about 4.5 times larger than the carbon–climate feedback. Differences in the modeled responses of the carbon budget to changes in CO2 and temperature are seen to be 3–4 times larger for the land components compared to the ocean components of participating models. The feedback parameters depend on the state of the system as well the forcing scenario but nevertheless provide insight into the behavior of the coupled carbon–climate system and a useful common framework for comparing models.

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Gijs de Boer
,
Brian J. Butterworth
,
Jack S. Elston
,
Adam Houston
,
Elizabeth Pillar-Little
,
Brian Argrow
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Tyler M. Bell
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Phillip Chilson
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Christopher Choate
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Brian R. Greene
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Ashraful Islam
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Ryan Martz
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Michael Rhodes
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Daniel Rico
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Maciej Stachura
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Francesca M. Lappin
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Antonio R. Segales
,
Seabrooke Whyte
, and
Matthew Wilson

Abstract

Small uncrewed aircraft systems (sUAS) are regularly being used to conduct atmospheric research and are starting to be used as a data source for informing weather models through data assimilation. However, only a limited number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the performance of these systems and assess their ability to replicate measurements from more traditional sensors such as radiosondes and towers. In the current work, we use data collected in central Oklahoma over a 2-week period to offer insight into the performance of five different sUAS platforms and associated sensors in measuring key weather data. This includes data from three rotary-wing and two fixed-wing sUAS and included two commercially available systems and three university-developed research systems. Flight data were compared to regular radiosondes launched at the flight location, tower observations, and intercompared with data from other sUAS platforms. All platforms were shown to measure atmospheric state with reasonable accuracy, though there were some consistent biases detected for individual platforms. This information can be used to inform future studies using these platforms and is currently being used to provide estimated error covariances as required in support of assimilation of sUAS data into weather forecasting systems.

Open access
D. R. Feldman
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A. C. Aiken
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W. R. Boos
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R. W. H. Carroll
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V. Chandrasekar
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S. Collis
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J. M. Creamean
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G. de Boer
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J. Deems
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P. J. DeMott
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J. Fan
,
A. N. Flores
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D. Gochis
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M. Grover
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T. C. J. Hill
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A. Hodshire
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E. Hulm
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C. C. Hume
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R. Jackson
,
F. Junyent
,
A. Kennedy
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M. Kumjian
,
E. J. T. Levin
,
J. D. Lundquist
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J. O’Brien
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M. S. Raleigh
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J. Reithel
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A. Rhoades
,
K. Rittger
,
W. Rudisill
,
Z. Sherman
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E. Siirila-Woodburn
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S. M. Skiles
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J. N. Smith
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R. C. Sullivan
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A. Theisen
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M. Tuftedal
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A. C. Varble
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A. Wiedlea
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S. Wielandt
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K. Williams
, and
Z. Xu

Abstract

The science of mountainous hydrology spans the atmosphere through the bedrock and inherently crosses physical and disciplinary boundaries: land–atmosphere interactions in complex terrain enhance clouds and precipitation, while watersheds retain and release water over a large range of spatial and temporal scales. Limited observations in complex terrain challenge efforts to improve predictive models of the hydrology in the face of rapid changes. The Upper Colorado River exemplifies these challenges, especially with ongoing mismatches between precipitation, snowpack, and discharge. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) user facility has deployed an observatory to the East River Watershed near Crested Butte, Colorado, between September 2021 and June 2023 to measure the main atmospheric drivers of water resources, including precipitation, clouds, winds, aerosols, radiation, temperature, and humidity. This effort, called the Surface Atmosphere Integrated Field Laboratory (SAIL), is also working in tandem with DOE-sponsored surface and subsurface hydrologists and other federal, state, and local partners. SAIL data can be benchmarks for model development by producing a wide range of observational information on precipitation and its associated processes, including those processes that impact snowpack sublimation and redistribution, aerosol direct radiative effects in the atmosphere and in the snowpack, aerosol impacts on clouds and precipitation, and processes controlling surface fluxes of energy and mass. Preliminary data from SAIL’s first year showcase the rich information content in SAIL’s many datastreams and support testing hypotheses that will ultimately improve scientific understanding and predictability of Upper Colorado River hydrology in 2023 and beyond.

Open access
J. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano
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O. K. Hartogensis
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H. de Boer
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R. Moonen
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R. González-Armas
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M. Janssens
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G. A. Adnew
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D. J. Bonell-Fontás
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S. Botía
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S. P. Jones
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H. van Asperen
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S. Komiya
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V. S. de Feiter
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D. Rikkers
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S. de Haas
,
L. A. T. Machado
,
C. Q. Dias-Junior
,
G. Giovanelli-Haytzmann
,
W. I. D. Valenti
,
R. C. Figueiredo
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C. S. Farias
,
D. H. Hall
,
A. C. S. Mendonça
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F. A. G. da Silva
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J. L. Marton da Silva
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R. Souza
,
G. Martins
,
J. N. Miller
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W. B. Mol
,
B. Heusinkveld
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C. C. van Heerwaarden
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F. A. F. D’Oliveira
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R. Rodrigues Ferreira
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R. Acosta Gotuzzo
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G. Pugliese
,
J. Williams
,
A. Ringsdorf
,
A. Edtbauer
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C. A. Quesada
,
B. Takeshi Tanaka Portela
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E. Gomes Alves
,
C. Pöhlker
,
S. Trumbore
,
J. Lelieveld
, and
T. Röckmann

Abstract

How are rainforest photosynthesis and turbulent fluxes influenced by clouds? To what extent are clouds affected by local processes driven by rainforest energy, water and carbon fluxes? These interrelated questions were the main drivers of the intensive field experiment CloudRoots-Amazon22 which took place at the ATTO/Campina supersites in the Amazon rainforest during the dry season, in August 2022. CloudRoots-Amazon22 collected observational data to derive cause-effect relationships between processes occurring at the leaf-level up to canopy scales in relation to the diurnal evolution of the clear-to-cloudy transition. First, we studied the impact of cloud and canopy radiation perturbations on the sub-diurnal variability of stomatal conductance. Stoma opening is larger in the morning, modulated by the cloud optical thickness. Second, we combined 1 Hz-frequency measurements of the stable isotopologues of carbon dioxide and water vapor with measurements of turbulence to determine carbon dioxide and water vapor sources and sinks within the canopy. Using scintillometer observations, we inferred 1-minute sensible heat flux that responded within minutes to the cloud passages. Third, collocated profiles of state variables and greenhouse gases enabled us to determine the role of clouds in vertical transport. We then inferred, using canopy and upper-atmospheric observations and a parameterization, the cloud cover and cloud mass flux to establish causality between canopy and cloud processes. This shows the need of comprehensive observational set to improve weather and climate model representations. Our findings contribute to advance our knowledge of the coupling between cloudy boundary layers and primary carbon productivity of the Amazon rainforest.

Open access
G. de Boer
,
C. Diehl
,
J. Jacob
,
A. Houston
,
S. W. Smith
,
P. Chilson
,
D. G. Schmale III
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J. Intrieri
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J. Pinto
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J. Elston
,
D. Brus
,
O. Kemppinen
,
A. Clark
,
D. Lawrence
,
S. C. C. Bailey
,
M.P. Sama
,
A. Frazier
,
C. Crick
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V. Natalie
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E. Pillar-Little
,
P. Klein
,
S. Waugh
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J. K. Lundquist
,
L. Barbieri
,
S. T. Kral
,
A. A. Jensen
,
C. Dixon
,
S. Borenstein
,
D. Hesselius
,
K. Human
,
P. Hall
,
B. Argrow
,
T. Thornberry
,
R. Wright
, and
J. T. Kelly
Full access
Greg M. McFarquhar
,
Elizabeth Smith
,
Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little
,
Keith Brewster
,
Phillip B. Chilson
,
Temple R. Lee
,
Sean Waugh
,
Nusrat Yussouf
,
Xuguang Wang
,
Ming Xue
,
Gijs de Boer
,
Jeremy A. Gibbs
,
Chris Fiebrich
,
Bruce Baker
,
Jerry Brotzge
,
Frederick Carr
,
Hui Christophersen
,
Martin Fengler
,
Philip Hall
,
Terry Hock
,
Adam Houston
,
Robert Huck
,
Jamey Jacob
,
Robert Palmer
,
Patricia K. Quinn
,
Melissa Wagner
,
Yan (Rockee) Zhang
, and
Darren Hawk
Free access
Taneil Uttal
,
Sandra Starkweather
,
James R. Drummond
,
Timo Vihma
,
Alexander P. Makshtas
,
Lisa S. Darby
,
John F. Burkhart
,
Christopher J. Cox
,
Lauren N. Schmeisser
,
Thomas Haiden
,
Marion Maturilli
,
Matthew D. Shupe
,
Gijs De Boer
,
Auromeet Saha
,
Andrey A. Grachev
,
Sara M. Crepinsek
,
Lori Bruhwiler
,
Barry Goodison
,
Bruce McArthur
,
Von P. Walden
,
Edward J. Dlugokencky
,
P. Ola G. Persson
,
Glen Lesins
,
Tuomas Laurila
,
John A. Ogren
,
Robert Stone
,
Charles N. Long
,
Sangeeta Sharma
,
Andreas Massling
,
David D. Turner
,
Diane M. Stanitski
,
Eija Asmi
,
Mika Aurela
,
Henrik Skov
,
Konstantinos Eleftheriadis
,
Aki Virkkula
,
Andrew Platt
,
Eirik J. Førland
,
Yoshihiro Iijima
,
Ingeborg E. Nielsen
,
Michael H. Bergin
,
Lauren Candlish
,
Nikita S. Zimov
,
Sergey A. Zimov
,
Norman T. O’Neill
,
Pierre F. Fogal
,
Rigel Kivi
,
Elena A. Konopleva-Akish
,
Johannes Verlinde
,
Vasily Y. Kustov
,
Brian Vasel
,
Viktor M. Ivakhov
,
Yrjö Viisanen
, and
Janet M. Intrieri

Abstract

International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) activities and partnerships were initiated as a part of the 2007–09 International Polar Year (IPY) and are expected to continue for many decades as a legacy program. The IASOA focus is on coordinating intensive measurements of the Arctic atmosphere collected in the United States, Canada, Russia, Norway, Finland, and Greenland to create synthesis science that leads to an understanding of why and not just how the Arctic atmosphere is evolving. The IASOA premise is that there are limitations with Arctic modeling and satellite observations that can only be addressed with boots-on-the-ground, in situ observations and that the potential of combining individual station and network measurements into an integrated observing system is tremendous. The IASOA vision is that by further integrating with other network observing programs focusing on hydrology, glaciology, oceanography, terrestrial, and biological systems it will be possible to understand the mechanisms of the entire Arctic system, perhaps well enough for humans to mitigate undesirable variations and adapt to inevitable change.

Full access