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K. B. Earnshaw, Ting-I. Wang, R. S. Lawrence, and R. G. Greunke

Abstract

The possibility of identifying weather through the observation of forward scatter of a laser beam has been investigated. Preliminary observations with a prototype instrument suggest that it is possible to distinguish clear air, rain, snow, hail and fog using laser weather identification. After additional measurements are made in various weather conditions, it should be practical to design a simple automatic instrument to provide such information.

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G. M. Hidy, P. K. Mueller, H. H. Wang, J. Karney, S. Twiss, M. Imada, and A. Alcocer

Abstract

To characterize the background aerosol in air off the California coast, observations of suspended particles were made in the summer and fall of 1970 on San Nicolas Island (SNI), located about 130 km west-south-west of Los Angeles. Measurements of the physical and chemical properties of aerosols showed that the particles are a complex mixture of material from marine and continental origins. The Aitken nuclei population averaged 2400 cm−3, while the particles >0.5 μm diameter averaged 20–100 cm−3. The average total mass concentration of aerosol evaluated from 22 samples was 29.8 μg m−3, but the refined fraction defined as particles ≲3.5 μm diameter was 40% of this level

The averages of the chemical analysis of 13 samples revealed that 11% of the aerosol sampled at a 200 m height above the ocean was sea salt, while approximately 20% evidently was soil dust, as indicated by silicates. Over 25% of the suspended material was found to be sulfate, nitrate or ammonium, which are constituents believed to be produced primarily from gaseous transformation reactions in the atmosphere.

More than 20% of the sampled material was volatile in nature and is believed to be partly water. The ratio for the average chlorine to sodium concentrations from the analysis of 13 different samples was 2.4 compared with 1.8 for sea water. This high ratio supports other limited results for unpolluted air from offshore sources taken in this geographical region. The anomaly is believed to be linked with chemical reactions transforming gaseous chlorine compounds into condensed material.

Comparison was made between the aerosol sampled on San Nicolas Island and the “natural” background contribution of the Los Angeles smog aerosol, as estimated elsewhere assuming contributions solely from sea salt and soil dust. The calculated background and the composition of the SNI aerosol were qualitatively similar, with the principal differences showing in Ca, Zn, SO4 and NO3 . Further comparison with aerosol analyzed from.Pasadena illustrated the major contribution of localized pollution to the chemical properties of the particles, particularly in the concentrations of Mu, Ca, Br, Fe, Pb, SO4 and NO3 .

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Zexia Duan, C. S. B. Grimmond, Chloe Y. Gao, Ting Sun, Changwei Liu, Linlin Wang, Yubin Li, and Zhiqiu Gao

Abstract

Quantitative knowledge of the water and energy exchanges in agroecosystems is vital for irrigation management and modeling crop production. In this study, the seasonal and annual variabilities of evapotranspiration (ET) and energy exchanges were investigated under two different crop environments—flooded and aerobic soil conditions—using three years (June 2014–May 2017) of eddy covariance observations over a rice–wheat rotation in eastern China. Across the whole rice–wheat rotation, the average daily ET rates in the rice paddies and wheat fields were 3.6 and 2.4 mm day−1, respectively. The respective average seasonal ET rates were 473 and 387 mm for rice and wheat fields, indicating a higher water consumption for rice than for wheat. Averaging for the three cropping seasons, rice paddies had 52% more latent heat flux than wheat fields, whereas wheat had 73% more sensible heat flux than rice paddies. This resulted in a lower Bowen ratio in the rice paddies (0.14) than in the wheat fields (0.4). Because eddy covariance observations of turbulent heat fluxes are typically less than the available energy (R n − G; i.e., net radiation minus soil heat flux), energy balance closure (EBC) therefore does not occur. For rice, EBC was greatest at the vegetative growth stages (mean: 0.90) after considering the water heat storage, whereas wheat had its best EBC at the ripening stages (mean: 0.86).

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Song Yang, William S. Olson, Jian-Jian Wang, Thomas L. Bell, Eric A. Smith, and Christian D. Kummerow

Abstract

Rainfall rate estimates from spaceborne microwave radiometers are generally accepted as reliable by a majority of the atmospheric science community. One of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) facility rain-rate algorithms is based upon passive microwave observations from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). In Part I of this series, improvements of the TMI algorithm that are required to introduce latent heating as an additional algorithm product are described. Here, estimates of surface rain rate, convective proportion, and latent heating are evaluated using independent ground-based estimates and satellite products. Instantaneous, 0.5°-resolution estimates of surface rain rate over ocean from the improved TMI algorithm are well correlated with independent radar estimates (r ∼0.88 over the Tropics), but bias reduction is the most significant improvement over earlier algorithms. The bias reduction is attributed to the greater breadth of cloud-resolving model simulations that support the improved algorithm and the more consistent and specific convective/stratiform rain separation method utilized. The bias of monthly 2.5°-resolution estimates is similarly reduced, with comparable correlations to radar estimates. Although the amount of independent latent heating data is limited, TMI-estimated latent heating profiles compare favorably with instantaneous estimates based upon dual-Doppler radar observations, and time series of surface rain-rate and heating profiles are generally consistent with those derived from rawinsonde analyses. Still, some biases in profile shape are evident, and these may be resolved with (a) additional contextual information brought to the estimation problem and/or (b) physically consistent and representative databases supporting the algorithm. A model of the random error in instantaneous 0.5°-resolution rain-rate estimates appears to be consistent with the levels of error determined from TMI comparisons with collocated radar. Error model modifications for nonraining situations will be required, however. Sampling error represents only a portion of the total error in monthly 2.5°-resolution TMI estimates; the remaining error is attributed to random and systematic algorithm errors arising from the physical inconsistency and/or nonrepresentativeness of cloud-resolving-model-simulated profiles that support the algorithm.

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Xiangyu Ao, C. S. B. Grimmond, Dongwei Liu, Zhihui Han, Ping Hu, Yadong Wang, Xinrong Zhen, and Jianguo Tan

Abstract

Radiative fluxes are key drivers of surface–atmosphere heat exchanges in cities. Here the first yearlong (December 2012–November 2013) measurements of the full radiation balance for a dense urban site in Shanghai, China, are presented, collected with a CNR4 net radiometer mounted 80 m above ground. Clear-sky incoming shortwave radiation K (median daytime maxima) ranges from 575 W m−2 in winter to 875 W m−2 in spring, with cloud cover reducing the daily maxima by about 160 W m−2. The median incoming longwave radiation daytime maxima are 305 and 468 W m−2 in winter and summer, respectively, with increases of 30 and 15 W m−2 for cloudy conditions. The effect of air quality is evident: haze conditions decrease hourly median K by 11.3%. The midday (1100–1300 LST) clear-sky surface albedo α is 0.128, 0.141, 0.143, and 0.129 for winter, spring, summer, and autumn, respectively. The value of α varies with solar elevation and azimuth angle because of the heterogeneity of the urban surface. In winter, shadows play an important role in decreasing α in the late afternoon. For the site, the bulk α is 0.14. The Net All-Wave Radiation Parameterization Scheme/Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (NARP/SUEWS) land surface model reproduces the radiation components at this site well, which is a promising result for applications elsewhere. These observations help to fill the gap of long-term radiation measurements in East Asian and low-latitude cities, quantifying the effects of season, cloud cover, and air quality.

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J. R. Wang, S. H. Melfi, P. Racette, D. N. Whitemen, L. A. Chang, R. A. Ferrare, K. D. Evans, and F. J. Schmidlin

Abstract

Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric water vapor were made by the Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR), Raman lidar, and rawinsondes. Two types of rawinsonde sensor packages (AIR and Vaisala) were carried by the same balloon. The measured water vapor profiles from Raman lidar, and the Vaisala and AIR sondes were used in the radiative transfer calculations. The calculated brightness temperatures were compared with those measured from the MIR at all six frequencies (89, 150, 183.3 ± 1, 183.3 ±3, 183.3 ±7, and 220 GHz). The results show that the MIR-measured brightness temperatures agree well (within ±K) with those calculated from the Raman lidar and Vaisala measurements. The brightness temperatures calculated from the AIR sondes differ from the MIR measurements by as much as 10 K, which can be attributed to low sensitivity of the AIR sondes at relative humidity less than 20%. Both calculated and the MIR-measured brightness temperatures were also used to retrieve water vapor profiles. These retrieved profiles were compared with those measured by the Raman lidar and rawinsondes. The results of these comparisons suggest that the MIR can measure the brightness of a target to an accuracy of at most ±K and is capable of retrieving useful water vapor profiles.

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J. R. Wang, J. L. King, T. T. Wilheit, G. Szejwach, L. H. Gesell, R. A. Nieman, D. S. Niver, B. M. Krupp, and J. A. Gagliano

Abstract

High-altitude microwave radiometric observations at frequencies near 92 and 183.3 GHz were used to study the potential of retrieving atmospheric water vapor profiles over both land and water. An algorithm based on an extended Kaiman-Bucy filter was implemented and applied for the water vapor retrieval. The results show great promise in atmospheric water vapor profiling by microwave radiometry heretofore not attainable at lower frequencies.

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William S. Olson, Lin Tian, Mircea Grecu, Kwo-Sen Kuo, Benjamin T. Johnson, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Aaron Bansemer, Gerald M. Heymsfield, James R. Wang, and Robert Meneghini

Abstract

In this study, two different particle models describing the structure and electromagnetic properties of snow are developed and evaluated for potential use in satellite combined radar–radiometer precipitation estimation algorithms. In the first model, snow particles are assumed to be homogeneous ice–air spheres with single-scattering properties derived from Mie theory. In the second model, snow particles are created by simulating the self-collection of pristine ice crystals into aggregate particles of different sizes, using different numbers and habits of the collected component crystals. Single-scattering properties of the resulting nonspherical snow particles are determined using the discrete dipole approximation. The size-distribution-integrated scattering properties of the spherical and nonspherical snow particles are incorporated into a dual-wavelength radar profiling algorithm that is applied to 14- and 34-GHz observations of stratiform precipitation from the ER-2 aircraftborne High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP) radar. The retrieved ice precipitation profiles are then input to a forward radiative transfer calculation in an attempt to simulate coincident radiance observations from the Conical Scanning Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR). Much greater consistency between the simulated and observed CoSMIR radiances is obtained using estimated profiles that are based upon the nonspherical crystal/aggregate snow particle model. Despite this greater consistency, there remain some discrepancies between the higher moments of the HIWRAP-retrieved precipitation size distributions and in situ distributions derived from microphysics probe observations obtained from Citation aircraft underflights of the ER-2. These discrepancies can only be eliminated if a subset of lower-density crystal/aggregate snow particles is assumed in the radar algorithm and in the interpretation of the in situ data.

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Yansen Wang, Cheryl L. Klipp, Dennis M. Garvey, David A. Ligon, Chatt C. Williamson, Sam S. Chang, Rob K. Newsom, and Ronald Calhoun

Abstract

Boundary layer wind data observed by a Doppler lidar and sonic anemometers during the mornings of three intensive observational periods (IOP2, IOP3, and IOP7) of the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field experiment are analyzed to extract the mean and turbulent characteristics of airflow over Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. A strong nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ) dominated the flow in the boundary layer over the measurement domain from midnight to the morning hours. Lidar scans through the LLJ taken after sunrise indicate that the LLJ elevation shows a gradual increase of 25–100 m over the urban area relative to that over the upstream suburban area. The mean wind speed beneath the jet over the urban area is about 10%–15% slower than that over the suburban area. Sonic anemometer observations combined with Doppler lidar observations in the urban and suburban areas are also analyzed to investigate the boundary layer turbulence production in the LLJ-dominated atmospheric boundary layer. The turbulence kinetic energy was higher over the urban domain mainly because of the shear production of building surfaces and building wakes. Direct transport of turbulent momentum flux from the LLJ to the urban street level was very small because of the relatively high elevation of the jet. However, since the LLJ dominated the mean wind in the boundary layer, the turbulence kinetic energy in the urban domain is correlated directly with the LLJ maximum speed and inversely with its height. The results indicate that the jet Richardson number is a reasonably good indicator for turbulent kinetic energy over the urban domain in the LLJ-dominated atmospheric boundary layer.

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J. J. Shi, W-K. Tao, T. Matsui, R. Cifelli, A. Hou, S. Lang, A. Tokay, N-Y. Wang, C. Peters-Lidard, G. Skofronick-Jackson, S. Rutledge, and W. Petersen

Abstract

One of the grand challenges of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is to improve cold-season precipitation measurements in mid- and high latitudes through the use of high-frequency passive microwave radiometry. For this purpose, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with the Goddard microphysics scheme is coupled with a Satellite Data Simulation Unit (WRF–SDSU) to facilitate snowfall retrieval algorithms over land by providing a virtual cloud library and corresponding microwave brightness temperature measurements consistent with the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI). When this study was initiated, there were no prior published results using WRF at cloud-resolving resolution (1 km or finer) for high-latitude snow events. This study tested the Goddard cloud microphysics scheme in WRF for two different snowstorm events (a lake-effect event and a synoptic event between 20 and 22 January 2007) that took place over the Canadian CloudSat/Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) Validation Project (C3VP) site in Ontario, Canada. The 24-h-accumulated snowfall predicted by WRF with the Goddard microphysics was comparable to that observed by the ground-based radar for both events. The model correctly predicted the onset and termination of both snow events at the Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments site. The WRF simulations captured the basic cloud patterns as seen by the ground-based radar and satellite [i.e., CloudSat and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit B (AMSU-B)] observations, including the snowband featured in the lake event. The results reveal that WRF was able to capture the cloud macrostructure reasonably well. Sensitivity tests utilizing both the “2ICE” (ice and snow) and “3ICE” (ice, snow, and graupel) options in the Goddard microphysical scheme were also conducted. The domain- and time-averaged cloud species profiles from the WRF simulations with both microphysical options show identical results (due to weak vertical velocities and therefore the absence of large precipitating liquid or high-density ice particles like graupel). Both microphysics options produced an appreciable amount of liquid water, and the model cloud liquid water profiles compared well to the in situ C3VP aircraft measurements when only grid points in the vicinity of the flight paths were considered. However, statistical comparisons between observed and simulated radar echoes show that the model tended to have a high bias of several reflectivity decibels (dBZ), which shows that additional research is needed to improve the current cloud microphysics scheme for the extremely cold environment in high latitudes, despite the fact that the simulated ice/liquid water contents may have been reasonable for both events. Future aircraft observations are also needed to verify the existence of graupel in high-latitude continental snow events.

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