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W. G. Large, J. Morzel, and G. B. Crawford


Marine wind measurements at three heights (3.0,4.5, and 5.0 m) from both moored and drifting buoys during the Ocean Storms Experiment are described. These winds are compared with each other, with winds from ships, from subsurface ambient acoustic noise, and from the analyses of three numerical weather prediction centers. In the mean, wind directions generally differ by only a small constant offset of a few degrees. No wave influence on the wind direction is evident, because the differences are not systematic and, with few exceptions, they are less than the expected error. After correcting for some apparent calibration and instrument bias, the Ocean Storms wind speeds display similar behavior when compared to the analyzed wind products. There is excellent agreement up to a transition wind speed between 7 and 10 m s−1, above which all the measured winds tend to be relatively low. The transition speed is found to increase with anemometer height, so this behavior is interpreted as being due to the distortion of the wind profile by surface waves. The wave effects are shown to be profound. By increasing the stress by 40% or more in high winds, the corrections are shown to be essential for numerical models to simulate the oceanic response to storm events. The Ocean Storms corrections are used to construct functions describing wave influence on both the vertical wind shear and the mean wind speed profile. These functions can only be regarded as crude approximations because the Ocean Storms data are far from ideal for determining them. However, they can be used to assess potential influences of surface waves on any low-level wind measurement.

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W. G. Large, W. R. Holland, and J. C. Evans


A one-degree, flat bottom, eight-layer quasi-geostrophic model of the North Pacific Ocean is forced by six different wind stress curl datasets, all derived from seven years of twice daily analyses at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts, 1980–86. The six datasets, with nominal averaging times of 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days, are obtained by carefully filtering in the frequency domain. This filtering greatly reduces the variance, typically by 90% for 30-day averaging, because the wind stress curl spectrum is nearly white in frequency. It also smoothes spatially, reducing high wavenumber variance to a greater degree than variance near wavenumber zero. The climatology of the ECMWF wind stress curl does not show any unexpected differences from climatologies based on historical marine wind observations. The wind stress curl is neither temporally nor spatially stationary with the high frequency variance being much larger during the winter season and over the northern half of the North Pacific. Its spectrum does not appear to be isotropic in wavenumber.

From a common initial state, the baroclinic fields in the model ocean runs evolve nearly identically regardless of the forcing bemuse their frequencies are all lower than the Nyquist frequency of even 30-day sampling. The higher frequency forcing generates Rossby waves that dominate the instantaneous barotropic stream function throughout the basin. These barotropic waves are not found at frequencies above the Nyquist frequency of the forcing. There is negligible rectification into basin scale, six year mean flows. There are only small scale differences in mean monthly barotropic streamfunction fields. Thus, the barotropic ocean response diminishes as the nominal averaging time increases. Furthermore, these Rossby waves appear to be natural modes of the model basin, and they could be artificially forced unless the wind data processing carefully avoids aliasing unresolved frequencies. Overall the spectrum of ocean response is found to be more red in frequency than the nearly white wind curl spectrum and even more red in wavenumber.

High frequency forcing produces higher kinetic energies at all depths with an annual cycle that is related to the annual cycle of the high frequency variance in the wind stress curl. The deep kinetic energy and the intra-annual streamfunction variance are used to quantify the relative importance of the high frequency barotropic Rossby waves. There is considerable advantage in using 3-day average (over 7- and 14-day average) wind forcing, however, there is little more to be gained with 2-day averaging and nothing further added by 1-day averaging. When forced with 30-day averaged wind curls, the intra-annual stream function variance is typically only 30% of its value when forced with 3-day or shorter averages.

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W. G. Large, J. C. McWilliams, and P. P. Niiler


CASID free-drifting thermistor chain buoys that utilized Service ARGOS positioning and data collection were deployed in the northeast Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of OWS-P in late autumn in both 1980 and 1981 as part of the Storm Transfer and Response Experiment (STREX). It is argued that because of the large drag on their 120–125 m lines, CASID buoy drift is tightly coupled to currents. The response function of buoy motion and line shape to a two-dimensional current profile is determined, and an inversion technique is developed to infer relative flow past the buoy. In the mixed layer 6 cm s−1 errors in the inferred horizontal flow are acceptable, because advective temperature changes in the drifting CASID frame of reference are small. They are not acceptable in the thermocline where advection is large. These advective effects are removed from observed subinertial thermal evolution and the result compared to the effects of vertical heat redistribution processes and of surface heat flux, estimated from STREX synoptic analyses of air-sea interaction parameters.

A number of processes are responsible for the late autumn mixed-layer temperature change over both 50 days and a 1–2 day storm period. A 50-day SST change of −13.2°C following the mixed-layer flow and averaged over a three-buoy array is due to surface cooling (−0.04°C), entrainment (−1.1°C, of which −0.8°C is due to mixed layer deepening), and vertical mixing or diffusion (−1.5°C). Of the latter, −1.4°C occurs episodically in response to some, but not all storms, and the resulting thermocline heating appears clearly in a composite of twenty cooling/mixing events. The SST cooling and the distinctive heating pattern in the seasonal thermocline imply vertical diffusivities greater than 10 × 10−4 m2 s−1 at the base of the mixed layer and about 4 × 10−4 m2 s−1 in the lower two-thirds of the thermocline. When such enhanced diffusion is accounted for, the imbalance in the mixed layer heat budget (−0.2 ± 0.8°C) is well within measurement uncertainty. Enhanced diffusion is even more important in the 1–2 day episodic cooling response to a storm. Averaged over nine such events, it accounts for 63% of the −0.41°C of SST cooling at a CASID buoy. Only about 10% and 13% of the cooling is due to surface cooling and entrainment, respectively. Thus the mixed-layer heat budget imbalance on this time scale is only −0.06 (±0.10)°C. Over two to ten days there can be substantial horizontal advective heating or cooling, but these periods average to a small net effect on SST and do not appear to be necessarily associated with episodic cooling.

The sub-mixed layer estimates of subinertial flow and of temperature gradients indicate that most of the heat mixed vertically into the thermocline during episodic cooling is advected to the south and east. In both 1980 and 1981 the rate of change in heat content of the upper 120 m was about −140 W m−2, of which about −50 W m−2 was due to this flow. The processes of surface cooling, vertical advection and diffusion, and mixed layer advection each tend to cool too, but only at rates less than about 20 W m−2. Over 50 days of late autumn in both 1980 and 1981, the heat budget of 120 m has an imbalance of about −20 ± 36 W m−2.

A striking 50–200 km horizontal variability appears in the upper ocean response to a single storm. For two to four inertial periods following the onset of the storm, the magnitude of the inertial shear and low-frequency currents show a marked correspondence with the inferred strength of episodic SST cooling due to enhanced vertical diffusion. This correlation suggests a link between cooling and ocean dynamics, with strong vertical mixing between the thermocline and mixed layer receiving its energy locally from supercritical storm-driven currents. These currents depend largely on the preexisting current field whose horizontal scale determines the scale of episodic cooling. No such correspondence is found with either mixed layer depth, mixed layer deepening, the surface heat flux, or the surface wind forcing.

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R. F. Milliff, P. P. Niiler, J. Morzel, A. E. Sybrandy, D. Nychka, and W. G. Large


Observations of the surface wind speed and direction in the Labrador Sea for the period October 1996–May 1997 were obtained by the NASA scatterometer (NSCAT), and by 21 newly developed Minimet drifting buoys. Minimet wind speeds are inferred, hourly, from observations of acoustic pressure in the Wind-Speed Observation Through Ambient Noise (WOTAN) technology. Wind directions are inferred from a direction histogram, also accumulated hourly, as determined by the orientation of a wind vane attached to the surface floatation. Effective temporal averaging of acoustic pressure (20 min), and the interval over which the direction histogram is accumulated (160 s), are shown to be consistent with low-pass filtering to preserve mesoscale time- and space-scale signals in the surface wind. Minimet wind speed and direction retrievals in the Labrador Sea were calibrated with collocated NSCAT data. The NSCAT calibrations extend over the full field lifetimes of each Minimet (90 days on average). Wind speed variabilities of O(5 m s–1) and wind direction variabilities of O(40°) are evident on timescales of one to several hours in Minimet time series. Wind speed and direction rms differences versus spatial separation comparisons (from 0 to 400 km) for the NSCAT and Minimet records demonstrate similar rms differences in wind speed as a function of spatial separation, but O(20°) larger rms differences in Minimet direction. These differences are consistent with spatial smoothing effects in the median filter step for wind direction retrievals within the NSCAT swath. Zonal and meridional surface wind components are constructed from the calibrated Minimet wind speed and direction dataset. Rms differences versus spatial separation for these components are used to estimate mesoscale spatial correlation length scales of 250 and 290 km in the zonal and meridional directions, respectively.

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John W. Weatherly, Bruce P. Briegleb, William G. Large, and James A. Maslanik


The Climate System Model (CSM) consists of atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea-ice components linked by a flux coupler, which computes fluxes of energy and momentum between components. The sea-ice component consists of a thermodynamic formulation for ice, snow, and leads within the ice pack, and ice dynamics using the cavitating-fluid ice rheology, which allows for the compressive strength of ice but ignores shear viscosity.

The results of a 300-yr climate simulation are presented, with the focus on sea ice and the atmospheric forcing over sea ice in the polar regions. The atmospheric model results are compared to analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and other observational sources. The sea-ice concentrations and velocities are compared to satellite observational data.

The atmospheric sea level pressure (SLP) in CSM exhibits a high in the central Arctic displaced poleward from the observed Beaufort high. The Southern Hemisphere SLP over sea ice is generally 5 mb lower than observed. Air temperatures over sea ice in both hemispheres exhibit cold biases of 2–4 K. The precipitation-minus-evaporation fields in both hemispheres are greatly improved over those from earlier versions of the atmospheric GCM.

The simulated ice-covered area is close to observations in the Southern Hemisphere but too large in the Northern Hemisphere. The ice concentration fields show that the ice cover is too extensive in the North Pacific and subarctic North Atlantic Oceans. The interannual variability of the ice area is similar to observations in both hemispheres. The ice thickness pattern in the Antarctic is realistic but generally too thin away from the continent. The maximum thickness in the Arctic occurs against the Bering Strait, not against the Canadian Archipelago as observed. The ice velocities are stronger than observed in both hemispheres, with a consistently greater turning angle (to the left) in the Southern Hemisphere. They produce a northward ice transport in the Southern Hemisphere that is 3–4 times the satellite-derived value. Sensitivity tests with the sea-ice component show that both the pattern of wind forcing in CSM and the air-ice drag parameter used contribute to the biases in thickness, drift speeds, and transport. Plans for further development of the ice model to incorporate a viscous-plastic ice rheology are presented.

In spite of the biases of the sea-ice simulation, the 300-yr climate simulation exhibits only a small degree of drift in the surface climate without the use of flux adjustment. This suggests a robust stability in the simulated climate in the presence of significant variability.

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D. A. Cherian, D. B. Whitt, R. M. Holmes, R.-C. Lien, S. D. Bachman, and W. G. Large


The equatorial Pacific cold tongue is a site of large heat absorption by the ocean. This heat uptake is enhanced by a daily cycle of shear turbulence beneath the mixed layer—“deep-cycle turbulence”—that removes heat from the sea surface and deposits it in the upper flank of the Equatorial Undercurrent. Deep-cycle turbulence results when turbulence is triggered daily in sheared and stratified flow that is marginally stable (gradient Richardson number Ri ≈ 0.25). Deep-cycle turbulence has been observed on numerous occasions in the cold tongue at 0°, 140°W, and may be modulated by tropical instability waves (TIWs). Here we use a primitive equation regional simulation of the cold tongue to show that deep-cycle turbulence may also occur off the equator within TIW cold cusps where the flow is marginally stable. In the cold cusp, preexisting equatorial zonal shear u z is enhanced by horizontal vortex stretching near the equator, and subsequently modified by horizontal vortex tilting terms to generate meridional shear υ z off of the equator. Parameterized turbulence in the sheared flow of the cold cusp is triggered daily by the descent of the surface mixing layer associated with the weakening of the stabilizing surface buoyancy flux in the afternoon. Observational evidence for off-equatorial deep-cycle turbulence is restricted to a few CTD casts, which, when combined with shear from shipboard ADCP data, suggest the presence of marginally stable flow in TIW cold cusps. This study motivates further observational campaigns to characterize the modulation of deep-cycle turbulence by TIWs both on and off the equator.

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James W. Hurrell, M. M. Holland, P. R. Gent, S. Ghan, Jennifer E. Kay, P. J. Kushner, J.-F. Lamarque, W. G. Large, D. Lawrence, K. Lindsay, W. H. Lipscomb, M. C. Long, N. Mahowald, D. R. Marsh, R. B. Neale, P. Rasch, S. Vavrus, M. Vertenstein, D. Bader, W. D. Collins, J. J. Hack, J. Kiehl, and S. Marshall

The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a flexible and extensible community tool used to investigate a diverse set of Earth system interactions across multiple time and space scales. This global coupled model significantly extends its predecessor, the Community Climate System Model, by incorporating new Earth system simulation capabilities. These comprise the ability to simulate biogeochemical cycles, including those of carbon and nitrogen, a variety of atmospheric chemistry options, the Greenland Ice Sheet, and an atmosphere that extends to the lower thermosphere. These and other new model capabilities are enabling investigations into a wide range of pressing scientific questions, providing new foresight into possible future climates and increasing our collective knowledge about the behavior and interactions of the Earth system. Simulations with numerous configurations of the CESM have been provided to phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and are being analyzed by the broad community of scientists. Additionally, the model source code and associated documentation are freely available to the scientific community to use for Earth system studies, making it a true community tool. This article describes this Earth system model and its various possible configurations, and highlights a number of its scientific capabilities.

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Jennifer A. MacKinnon, Zhongxiang Zhao, Caitlin B. Whalen, Amy F. Waterhouse, David S. Trossman, Oliver M. Sun, Louis C. St. Laurent, Harper L. Simmons, Kurt Polzin, Robert Pinkel, Andrew Pickering, Nancy J. Norton, Jonathan D. Nash, Ruth Musgrave, Lynne M. Merchant, Angelique V. Melet, Benjamin Mater, Sonya Legg, William G. Large, Eric Kunze, Jody M. Klymak, Markus Jochum, Steven R. Jayne, Robert W. Hallberg, Stephen M. Griffies, Steve Diggs, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Eric P. Chassignet, Maarten C. Buijsman, Frank O. Bryan, Bruce P. Briegleb, Andrew Barna, Brian K. Arbic, Joseph K. Ansong, and Matthew H. Alford


Diapycnal mixing plays a primary role in the thermodynamic balance of the ocean and, consequently, in oceanic heat and carbon uptake and storage. Though observed mixing rates are on average consistent with values required by inverse models, recent attention has focused on the dramatic spatial variability, spanning several orders of magnitude, of mixing rates in both the upper and deep ocean. Away from ocean boundaries, the spatiotemporal patterns of mixing are largely driven by the geography of generation, propagation, and dissipation of internal waves, which supply much of the power for turbulent mixing. Over the last 5 years and under the auspices of U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability Program (CLIVAR), a National Science Foundation (NSF)- and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-supported Climate Process Team has been engaged in developing, implementing, and testing dynamics-based parameterizations for internal wave–driven turbulent mixing in global ocean models. The work has primarily focused on turbulence 1) near sites of internal tide generation, 2) in the upper ocean related to wind-generated near inertial motions, 3) due to internal lee waves generated by low-frequency mesoscale flows over topography, and 4) at ocean margins. Here, we review recent progress, describe the tools developed, and discuss future directions.

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