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Yang Shi, Jiahua Wei, Yan Ren, Zhen Qiao, Qiong Li, Xiaomei Zhu, Beiming Kang, Peichong Pan, Jiongwei Cao, Jun Qiu, Tiejian Li, and Guangqian Wang

Abstract

Acoustic agglomerations have increasingly attracted widespread attention as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach for fog removal and weather modification. In this study, research on precipitation interference and the agglomeration performance of droplet aerosols under large-scale acoustic waves was presented. In total, 49 field experiments in the source region of the Yellow River in the summer of 2019 were performed to reveal the influences of acoustic waves on precipitation, such as the radar reflectivity factor Z, rain rate R, and raindrop size distribution (DSD). A monitoring system that consisted of rain gauges and raindrop spectrometers was employed to monitor near-ground rainfall within a 5-km radius of the field site. The ground-based observations showed that acoustic waves could significantly affect the rainfall distribution and microstructure of precipitation particles. The average values of rainfall increased by 18.98%, 10.61%, and 8.74% within 2, 3, and 5 km, respectively, of the operation center with acoustic application. The changing trend of microphysical parameters of precipitation was roughly in line with variation of acoustic waves for stratiform cloud. Moreover, there was a good quadratic relationship between the spectral parameters λ and μ. Raindrop kinetic energy e K and the radar reflectivity factor Z both exhibited a power function relationship with R.

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Fedor Mesinger, Geoff DiMego, Eugenia Kalnay, Kenneth Mitchell, Perry C. Shafran, Wesley Ebisuzaki, Dušan Jović, Jack Woollen, Eric Rogers, Ernesto H. Berbery, Michael B. Ek, Yun Fan, Robert Grumbine, Wayne Higgins, Hong Li, Ying Lin, Geoff Manikin, David Parrish, and Wei Shi

In 1997, during the late stages of production of NCEP–NCAR Global Reanalysis (GR), exploration of a regional reanalysis project was suggested by the GR project's Advisory Committee, “particularly if the RDAS [Regional Data Assimilation System] is significantly better than the global reanalysis at capturing the regional hydrological cycle, the diurnal cycle and other important features of weather and climate variability.” Following a 6-yr development and production effort, NCEP's North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) project was completed in 2004, and data are now available to the scientific community. Along with the use of the NCEP Eta model and its Data Assimilation System (at 32-km–45-layer resolution with 3-hourly output), the hallmarks of the NARR are the incorporation of hourly assimilation of precipitation, which leverages a comprehensive precipitation analysis effort, the use of a recent version of the Noah land surface model, and the use of numerous other datasets that are additional or improved compared to the GR. Following the practice applied to NCEP's GR, the 25-yr NARR retrospective production period (1979–2003) is augmented by the construction and daily execution of a system for near-real-time continuation of the NARR, known as the Regional Climate Data Assimilation System (R-CDAS). Highlights of the NARR results are presented: precipitation over the continental United States (CONUS), which is seen to be very near the ingested analyzed precipitation; fits of tropospheric temperatures and winds to rawinsonde observations; and fits of 2-m temperatures and 10-m winds to surface station observations. The aforementioned fits are compared to those of the NCEP–Department of Energy (DOE) Global Reanalysis (GR2). Not only have the expectations cited above been fully met, but very substantial improvements in the accuracy of temperatures and winds compared to that of GR2 are achieved throughout the troposphere. Finally, the numerous datasets produced are outlined and information is provided on the data archiving and present data availability.

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