Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 20 items for

  • Author or Editor: Wei Yan x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Shuo Ma, Wei Yan, Yunxian Huang, Jun Jiang, Shensen Hu, and Yingqiang Wang

Abstract

Many quantitative uses of the nighttime imagery provided by low-light sensors, such as the day–night band (DNB) on board the Suomi–National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP), have emerged recently. Owing to the low nighttime radiance, low-light calibration at night must be investigated in detail. Traditional vicarious calibration methods are based on some targets with nearly invariant surface properties under lunar illumination. However, the relatively stable light emissions may also be used to realize the radiometric calibration under low light. This paper presents a low-light calibration method based on bridge lights, and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) DNB data are used to assess the proposed method. A comparison of DNB high-gain-stage (HGS) radiances over a 2-yr period from August 2012 to July 2014 demonstrates that the predictions are consistent with the observations, and the agreement between the predictions and the observations is on the order of −2.9% with an uncertainty of 9.3% (1σ) for the Hangzhou Bay Bridge and −3.9% with an uncertainty of 7.2% (1σ) for the Donghai Bridge. Such a calibration method based on stable light emissions has a wide application prospect for the calibration of low-light sensors at night.

Full access
Lingsheng Meng, Wei Zhuang, Weiwei Zhang, Angela Ditri, and Xiao-Hai Yan

Abstract

Sea level changes within wide temporal–spatial scales have great influence on oceanic and atmospheric circulations. Efforts have been made to identify long-term sea level trend and regional sea level variations on different time scales. A nonuniform sea level rise in the tropical Pacific and the strengthening of the easterly trade winds from 1993 to 2012 have been widely reported. It is well documented that sea level in the tropical Pacific is associated with the typical climate modes. However, sea level change on interannual and decadal time scales still requires more research. In this study, the Pacific sea level anomaly (SLA) was decomposed into interannual and decadal time scales via an ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method. The temporal–spatial features of the SLA variability in the Pacific were examined and were closely associated with climate variability modes. Moreover, decadal SLA oscillations in the Pacific Ocean were identified during 1993–2016, with the phase reversals around 2000, 2004, and 2012. In the tropical Pacific, large sea level variations in the western and central basin were a result of changes in the equatorial wind stress. Moreover, coherent decadal changes could also be seen in wind stress, sea surface temperature (SST), subtropical cells (STCs), and thermocline depth. Our work provided a new way to illustrate the interannual and decadal sea level variations in the Pacific Ocean and suggested a coupled atmosphere–ocean variability on a decadal time scale in the tropical region with two cycles from 1993 to 2016.

Full access
Guomei Wei, Zhigang He, Yanshuang Xie, Shaoping Shang, Hao Dai, Jingyu Wu, Ke Liu, Rui Lin, Yan Wan, Hang Lin, Jinrui Chen, and Yan Li

Abstract

Two Ocean State Monitoring and Analyzing Radar (OSMAR071) (7.8 MHz) high-frequency (HF) radars and four moored ADCPs were operated concurrently in the southwestern Taiwan Strait during January–March 2013. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of surface currents were conducted between the HF radars and the ADCPs. Except for a location probably affected by shallow water and sand waves on the Taiwan Banks, the HF-radar-derived radial currents (radials) showed good agreement with the ADCP measured results (correlation coefficient: 0.89–0.98; rms difference: 0.07–0.13 m s−1). To provide further insight into the geophysical processes involved, the performance of the HF-radar-derived radials was further evaluated under different sea states (sea states: 2–6). It was found that both the data returns of the radar-derived radials and the differences between the radar-derived radials and the ADCP-derived radials varied with sea state. The HF radar performed best at sea state 4 in terms of data returns. The spatial coverage increased rapidly as the waves increased from sea state 2 to 4. However, it decreased slowly from sea state 4 to 6. Second, the radial differences were relatively high under lower sea states (2 and 3) at the location where the best agreement was obtained between the radar and ADCP radials, whereas the differences increased as the sea states increased at the other three locations. The differences between the radials measured by the HF radars and the ADCPs could be attributed to wave-induced Stokes drift and spatial sampling differences.

Restricted access
Yang Shi, Jiahua Wei, Yan Ren, Zhen Qiao, Qiong Li, Xiaomei Zhu, Beiming Kang, Peichong Pan, Jiongwei Cao, Jun Qiu, Tiejian Li, and Guangqian Wang

Abstract

Acoustic agglomerations have increasingly attracted widespread attention as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach for fog removal and weather modification. In this study, research on precipitation interference and the agglomeration performance of droplet aerosols under large-scale acoustic waves was presented. In total, 49 field experiments in the source region of the Yellow River in the summer of 2019 were performed to reveal the influences of acoustic waves on precipitation, such as the radar reflectivity factor Z, rain rate R, and raindrop size distribution (DSD). A monitoring system that consisted of rain gauges and raindrop spectrometers was employed to monitor near-ground rainfall within a 5-km radius of the field site. The ground-based observations showed that acoustic waves could significantly affect the rainfall distribution and microstructure of precipitation particles. The average values of rainfall increased by 18.98%, 10.61%, and 8.74% within 2, 3, and 5 km, respectively, of the operation center with acoustic application. The changing trend of microphysical parameters of precipitation was roughly in line with variation of acoustic waves for stratiform cloud. Moreover, there was a good quadratic relationship between the spectral parameters λ and μ. Raindrop kinetic energy e K and the radar reflectivity factor Z both exhibited a power function relationship with R.

Restricted access
Linghui Cai, Shaoping Shang, Guomei Wei, Zhigang He, Yanshuang Xie, Ke Liu, Tao Zhou, Jinquan Chen, Feng Zhang, and Yan Li

Abstract

Dual high-frequency (HF) radar systems are often used to provide measurements of waves, winds, and currents. In this study, the accuracy of wave measurements using a single HF radar system (OS081H-A) was explored using datasets obtained during 5–27 January 2014 in the southwestern Taiwan Strait. We selected the study region as an area with >90% coverage (i.e., the range was <100 km). Qualitative and quantitative intercomparison of wave measurements (by the radar and five buoys) and wave model products [from the Simulating Wave Nearshore (SWAN) model] were conducted. Intercomparison of the modeled and in situ significant wave height Hs showed that the model-predicted Hs could be considered to be acceptable for use as “sea truth” to evaluate the radar-derived Hs, with mean bias from −0.45 to −0.16 m, mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.24–0.45 m, and root-mean-square error of 0.31–0.54 m. It was found that the MAE of radar-derived Hs was ≤ 1 m for 86% of the sector (except at the edge of sector) when the model-predicted Hs was ≥ 1.5 m. In particular, the MAE was less than 0.6 m for 63% of the sector, which was mainly distributed in the area with a bearing from −50° to +70° and a range of 20–70 km. The results are promising, but more work is needed. We employed a spatial distribution function for the MAE of the radar-derived Hs over the sample duration based on range, bearing, and mean radar-derived Hs.

Full access
Shasha Shang, Gaofeng Zhu, Jianhui Wei, Yan Li, Kun Zhang, Ruolin Li, Joël Arnault, Zhenyu Zhang, Patrick Laux, Qianya Yang, Ningpeng Dong, Lu Gao, and Harald Kunstmann

Abstract

Precipitation in the Three-River Headwater (TRH) region has undergone significant changes as a result of global warming, which can affect water resources in downstream regions of Asia. However, the underlying mechanisms of the precipitation variability during the cold season (October to April), are still not fully understood. In this study, the daily China gridded precipitation product of CN05.1 as well as the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis are used to investigate the characteristics of the cold season precipitation variability over the TRH region and associated atmospheric mechanisms. The cold season precipitation shows an increasing trend (5.5 mm decade-1) from 1961 to 2014, with a dry-to-wet shift in around the late 1980s. The results indicate that the increased precipitation is associated with the enhanced easterly anomalies over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and enhanced southeasterly water vapor transport. The enhanced Walker circulations, caused by the gradients of sea surface temperature between the equatorial central-eastern Pacific and Indo-western Pacific in tropical oceans, resulted in strengthened easterly anomalies over the TP and the westward expansion of the anticyclone in the western North Pacific. Meanwhile, the changed Walker circulation is accompanied by a strengthened local Hadley circulation which leads to enhanced meridional water vapor transport from tropical oceans and the South China Sea toward the TRH region. Furthermore, the strengthened East Asia Subtropical Westerly jet may contribute to the enhanced divergence at upper level and anomalous ascending motion above the TRH region leading to more precipitation.

Restricted access
Zepei Wu, Shuo Liu, Delong Zhao, Ling Yang, Zixin Xu, Zhipeng Yang, Dantong Liu, Tao Liu, Yan Ding, Wei Zhou, Hui He, Mengyu Huang, Ruijie Li, and Deping Ding

Abstract

Cloud particles have different shapes in the atmosphere. Research on cloud particle shapes plays an important role in analyzing the growth of ice crystals and the cloud microphysics. To achieve an accurate and efficient classification algorithm on ice crystal images, this study uses image-based morphological processing and principal component analysis, to extract features of images and apply intelligent classification algorithms for the Cloud Particle Imager (CPI). Currently, there are mainly two types of ice-crystal classification methods: one is the mode parameterization scheme, and the other is the artificial intelligence model. Combined with data feature extraction, the dataset was tested on ten types of classifiers, and the highest average accuracy was 99.07%. The fastest processing speed of the real-time data processing test was 2,000 images/s. In actual application, the algorithm should consider the processing speed, because the images are in the order of millions. Therefore, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used in this study. The SVM-based optimization algorithm can classify ice crystals into nine classes with an average accuracy of 95%, blurred frame accuracy of 100%, with a processing speed of 2,000 images/s. This method has a relatively high accuracy and faster classification processing speed than the classic neural network model. The new method could be also applied in physical parameter analysis of cloud microphysics.

Restricted access
Ping Zhao, Xiangde Xu, Fei Chen, Xueliang Guo, Xiangdong Zheng, Liping Liu, Yang Hong, Yueqing Li, Zuo La, Hao Peng, Linzhi Zhong, Yaoming Ma, Shihao Tang, Yimin Liu, Huizhi Liu, Yaohui Li, Qiang Zhang, Zeyong Hu, Jihua Sun, Shengjun Zhang, Lixin Dong, Hezhen Zhang, Yang Zhao, Xiaolu Yan, An Xiao, Wei Wan, Yu Liu, Junming Chen, Ge Liu, Yangzong Zhaxi, and Xiuji Zhou

Abstract

This paper presents the background, scientific objectives, experimental design, and preliminary achievements of the Third Tibetan Plateau (TP) Atmospheric Scientific Experiment (TIPEX-III) for 8–10 years. It began in 2013 and has expanded plateau-scale observation networks by adding observation stations in data-scarce areas; executed integrated observation missions for the land surface, planetary boundary layer, cloud–precipitation, and troposphere–stratosphere exchange processes by coordinating ground-based, air-based, and satellite facilities; and achieved noticeable progress in data applications. A new estimation gives a smaller bulk transfer coefficient of surface sensible heat over the TP, which results in a reduction of the possibly overestimated heat intensity found in previous studies. Summer cloud–precipitation microphysical characteristics and cloud radiative effects over the TP are distinguished from those over the downstream plains. Warm rain processes play important roles in the development of cloud and precipitation over the TP. The lower-tropospheric ozone maximum over the northeastern TP is attributed to the regional photochemistry and long-range ozone transports, and the heterogeneous chemical processes of depleting ozone near the tropopause might not be a dominant mechanism for the summer upper-tropospheric–lower-stratospheric ozone valley over the southeastern TP. The TP thermodynamic function not only affects the local atmospheric water maintenance and the downstream precipitation and haze events but also modifies extratropical atmospheric teleconnections like the Asia–Pacific Oscillation, subtropical anticyclones over the North Pacific and Atlantic, and temperature and precipitation over Africa, Asia, and North America. These findings provide new insights into understanding land–atmosphere coupled processes over the TP and their effects, improving model parameterization schemes, and enhancing weather and climate forecast skills.

Open access
Kenneth J. Davis, Edward V. Browell, Sha Feng, Thomas Lauvaux, Michael D. Obland, Sandip Pal, Bianca C. Baier, David F. Baker, Ian T. Baker, Zachary R. Barkley, Kevin W. Bowman, Yu Yan Cui, A. Scott Denning, Joshua P. DiGangi, Jeremy T. Dobler, Alan Fried, Tobias Gerken, Klaus Keller, Bing Lin, Amin R. Nehrir, Caroline P. Normile, Christopher W. O’Dell, Lesley E. Ott, Anke Roiger, Andrew E. Schuh, Colm Sweeney, Yaxing Wei, Brad Weir, Ming Xue, and Christopher A. Williams

Abstract

The Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) – America NASA Earth Venture Suborbital Mission set out to improve regional atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) inversions by exploring the intersection of the strong GHG fluxes and vigorous atmospheric transport that occurs within the midlatitudes. Two research aircraft instrumented with remote and in situ sensors to measure GHG mole fractions, associated trace gases, and atmospheric state variables collected 1140.7 flight hours of research data, distributed across 305 individual aircraft sorties, coordinated within 121 research flight days, and spanning five, six-week seasonal flight campaigns in the central and eastern United States. Flights sampled 31 synoptic sequences, including fair weather and frontal conditions, at altitudes ranging from the atmospheric boundary layer to the upper free troposphere. The observations were complemented with global and regional GHG flux and transport model ensembles. We found that midlatitude weather systems contain large spatial gradients in GHG mole fractions, in patterns that were consistent as a function of season and altitude. We attribute these patterns to a combination of regional terrestrial fluxes and inflow from the continental boundaries. These observations, when segregated according to altitude and air mass, provide a variety of quantitative insights into the realism of regional CO2 and CH4 fluxes and atmospheric GHG transport realizations. The ACT-America data set and ensemble modeling methods provide benchmarks for the development of atmospheric inversion systems. As global and regional atmospheric inversions incorporate ACT-America’s findings and methods, we anticipate these systems will produce increasingly accurate and precise sub-continental GHG flux estimates.

Full access
Suranjana Saha, Shrinivas Moorthi, Hua-Lu Pan, Xingren Wu, Jiande Wang, Sudhir Nadiga, Patrick Tripp, Robert Kistler, John Woollen, David Behringer, Haixia Liu, Diane Stokes, Robert Grumbine, George Gayno, Jun Wang, Yu-Tai Hou, Hui-ya Chuang, Hann-Ming H. Juang, Joe Sela, Mark Iredell, Russ Treadon, Daryl Kleist, Paul Van Delst, Dennis Keyser, John Derber, Michael Ek, Jesse Meng, Helin Wei, Rongqian Yang, Stephen Lord, Huug van den Dool, Arun Kumar, Wanqiu Wang, Craig Long, Muthuvel Chelliah, Yan Xue, Boyin Huang, Jae-Kyung Schemm, Wesley Ebisuzaki, Roger Lin, Pingping Xie, Mingyue Chen, Shuntai Zhou, Wayne Higgins, Cheng-Zhi Zou, Quanhua Liu, Yong Chen, Yong Han, Lidia Cucurull, Richard W. Reynolds, Glenn Rutledge, and Mitch Goldberg

The NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) was completed for the 31-yr period from 1979 to 2009, in January 2010. The CFSR was designed and executed as a global, high-resolution coupled atmosphere–ocean–land surface–sea ice system to provide the best estimate of the state of these coupled domains over this period. The current CFSR will be extended as an operational, real-time product into the future. New features of the CFSR include 1) coupling of the atmosphere and ocean during the generation of the 6-h guess field, 2) an interactive sea ice model, and 3) assimilation of satellite radiances by the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) scheme over the entire period. The CFSR global atmosphere resolution is ~38 km (T382) with 64 levels extending from the surface to 0.26 hPa. The global ocean's latitudinal spacing is 0.25° at the equator, extending to a global 0.5° beyond the tropics, with 40 levels to a depth of 4737 m. The global land surface model has four soil levels and the global sea ice model has three layers. The CFSR atmospheric model has observed variations in carbon dioxide (CO2) over the 1979–2009 period, together with changes in aerosols and other trace gases and solar variations. Most available in situ and satellite observations were included in the CFSR. Satellite observations were used in radiance form, rather than retrieved values, and were bias corrected with “spin up” runs at full resolution, taking into account variable CO2 concentrations. This procedure enabled the smooth transitions of the climate record resulting from evolutionary changes in the satellite observing system.

CFSR atmospheric, oceanic, and land surface output products are available at an hourly time resolution and a horizontal resolution of 0.5° latitude × 0.5° longitude. The CFSR data will be distributed by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) and NCAR. This reanalysis will serve many purposes, including providing the basis for most of the NCEP Climate Prediction Center's operational climate products by defining the mean states of the atmosphere, ocean, land surface, and sea ice over the next 30-yr climate normal (1981–2010); providing initial conditions for historical forecasts that are required to calibrate operational NCEP climate forecasts (from week 2 to 9 months); and providing estimates and diagnoses of the Earth's climate state over the satellite data period for community climate research.

Preliminary analysis of the CFSR output indicates a product that is far superior in most respects to the reanalysis of the mid-1990s. The previous NCEP–NCAR reanalyses have been among the most used NCEP products in history; there is every reason to believe the CFSR will supersede these older products both in scope and quality, because it is higher in time and space resolution, covers the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land, and was executed in a coupled mode with a more modern data assimilation system and forecast model.

Full access