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Penglei Fan
,
Dong Zheng
,
Yijun Zhang
,
Shanqiang Gu
,
Wenjuan Zhang
,
Wen Yao
,
Biwu Yan
, and
Yongbin Xu

Abstract

A systematic evaluation of the performance of the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) over the Tibetan Plateau is conducted using data from the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Location System (CGLLS) developed by the State Grid Corporation of China for 2013–15 and lightning data from the satellite-based Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) for 2014–15. The average spatial location separation magnitudes in the midsouthern Tibetan Plateau (MSTP) region between matched WWLLN and CGLLS strokes and over the whole Tibetan Plateau between matched WWLLN and LIS flashes were 9.97 and 10.93 km, respectively. The detection efficiency (DE) of the WWLLN rose markedly with increasing stroke peak current, and the mean stroke peak currents of positive and negative cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning detected by the WWLLN in the MSTP region were 62.43 and −56.74 kA, respectively. The duration, area, and radiance of the LIS flashes that were also detected by the WWLLN were 1.27, 2.65, and 4.38 times those not detected by the WWLLN. The DE of the WWLLN in the MSTP region was 9.37% for CG lightning and 2.58% for total lightning. Over the Tibetan Plateau, the DE of the WWLLN for total lightning was 2.03%. In the MSTP region, the CG flash data made up 71.98% of all WWLLN flash data. Based on the abovementioned results, the ratio of intracloud (IC) lightning to CG lightning in the MSTP region was estimated to be 4.05.

Full access
Ke Huang
,
Ming Feng
,
Ying Wu
,
Dongxiao Wang
,
Wen Zhou
,
Tingting Zu
,
Weiqiang Wang
,
Qiang Xie
,
Lei Yang
,
Jinglong Yao
, and
Wei Zhou

Abstract

Leading modes of interannual variability in upper-ocean salinity in the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) and their connections were studied based on 17 years (2002–18) of oceanic historical and reanalysis data. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis depicted the dominant roles of the first two leading modes in salinity variability in the TIO over a wide range of interannual time scales. Among the rich oscillations of the leading EOF modes, a coherent near-biennial band was identified with basinwide loading of sea surface salinity anomalies (SSSa) (EOF1) leading/lagging the northeast–southwest dipolar mode of SSSa (EOF2) by around 4 months across the TIO, with southwestward migration of SSSa center. The spatial loadings of the SSSa leading modes in the TIO were strongly shaped by sea surface temperature–related freshwater fluxes and wind-driven regional ocean circulation on a near-biennial time scale. Composite analysis of the mixed layer salinity budget reflected characteristic features of basin-scale ocean–atmosphere coupling, both temporally and regionally during the life cycle of the near-biennial fluctuation in anomalous salinity in the TIO. Consistent with the intrinsic oscillation paradigm in the observed Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) variation, the dynamic and thermodynamic feedbacks associated with switches from the positive to negative IOD modes provided the phase-connection mechanisms for the SSSa leading-mode displacement over the TIO.

Significance Statement

This study investigates the leading modes of interannual variability in upper-ocean salinity in the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO). The intrinsic oscillation and associated dynamic and thermodynamic feedbacks over the TIO drive the basinwide connections of upper-ocean salinity variability. Our results show that a coherent near-biennial band is identifiable within the leading modes of sea surface salinity anomalies (SSSa), in which the wind-induced horizontal advections and evaporation-minus-precipitation anomalies associated with the switches from positive to negative Indian Ocean dipole modes mainly provide the phase-transition mechanism of SSSa. This research illustrates substantial evidence for the displacement of basin-scale sea surface temperature anomalies modulating the structures of SSSa and inducing the dynamical connections of leading modes of SSSa on the near-biennial time scale.

Restricted access
Fan Yang
,
Qing He
,
Jianping Huang
,
Ali Mamtimin
,
Xinghua Yang
,
Wen Huo
,
Chenglong Zhou
,
Xinchun Liu
,
Wenshou Wei
,
Caixia Cui
,
Minzhong Wang
,
Hongjun Li
,
Lianmei Yang
,
Hongsheng Zhang
,
Yuzhi Liu
,
Xinqian Zheng
,
Honglin Pan
,
Lili Jin
,
Han Zou
,
Libo Zhou
,
Yongqiang Liu
,
Jiantao Zhang
,
Lu Meng
,
Yu Wang
,
Xiaolin Qin
,
Yongjun Yao
,
Houyong Liu
,
Fumin Xue
, and
Wei Zheng

Abstract

As the second-largest shifting sand desert worldwide, the Taklimakan Desert (TD) represents the typical aeolian landforms in arid regions as an important source of global dust aerosols. It directly affects the ecological environment and human health across East Asia. Thus, establishing a comprehensive environment and climate observation network for field research in the TD region is essential to improve our understanding of the desert meteorology and environment, assess its impact, mitigate potential environmental issues, and promote sustainable development. With a nearly 20-yr effort under the extremely harsh conditions of the TD, the Desert Environment and Climate Observation Network (DECON) has been established completely covering the TD region. The core of DECON is the Tazhong station in the hinterland of the TD. Moreover, the network also includes 4 satellite stations located along the edge of the TD for synergistic observations, and 18 automatic weather stations interspersed between them. Thus, DECON marks a new chapter of environmental and meteorological observation capabilities over the TD, including dust storms, dust emission and transport mechanisms, desert land–atmosphere interactions, desert boundary layer structure, ground calibration for remote sensing monitoring, and desert carbon sinks. In addition, DECON promotes cooperation and communication within the research community in the field of desert environments and climate, which promotes a better understanding of the status and role of desert ecosystems. Finally, DECON is expected to provide the basic support necessary for coordinated environmental and meteorological monitoring and mitigation, joint construction of ecologically friendly communities, and sustainable development of central Asia.

Full access
Gregory C. Johnson
,
Rick Lumpkin
,
Tim Boyer
,
Francis Bringas
,
Ivona Cetinić
,
Don P. Chambers
,
Lijing Cheng
,
Shenfu Dong
,
Richard A. Feely
,
Baylor Fox-Kemper
,
Eleanor Frajka-Williams
,
Bryan A. Franz
,
Yao Fu
,
Meng Gao
,
Jay Garg
,
John Gilson
,
Gustavo Goni
,
Benjamin D. Hamlington
,
Helene T. Hewitt
,
William R. Hobbs
,
Zeng-Zhen Hu
,
Boyin Huang
,
Svetlana Jevrejeva
,
William E. Johns
,
Sato Katsunari
,
John J. Kennedy
,
Marion Kersalé
,
Rachel E. Killick
,
Eric Leuliette
,
Ricardo Locarnini
,
M. Susan Lozier
,
John M. Lyman
,
Mark A. Merrifield
,
Alexey Mishonov
,
Gary T. Mitchum
,
Ben I. Moat
,
R. Steven Nerem
,
Dirk Notz
,
Renellys C. Perez
,
Sarah G. Purkey
,
Darren Rayner
,
James Reagan
,
Claudia Schmid
,
David A. Siegel
,
David A. Smeed
,
Paul W. Stackhouse
,
William Sweet
,
Philip R. Thompson
,
Denis L. Volkov
,
Rik Wanninkhof
,
Robert A. Weller
,
Caihong Wen
,
Toby K. Westberry
,
Matthew J. Widlansky
,
Josh K. Willis
,
Lisan Yu
, and
Huai-Min Zhang
Free access