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Sheng Huang, Weijiang Li, Jiahong Wen, Mengru Zhu, Yao Lu, and Na Wu

Abstract

Driven by both climate change and urbanization, extreme rainfall events are becoming more frequent and having an increasing impact on urban commuting. Using hourly rainfall data and “metro” origin–destination (OD) flow data in Shanghai, China, this study uses the Prophet time series model to calculate the predicted commuting flows during rainfall events and then quantifies the spatiotemporal variations of commuting flows due to rainfall at station and OD levels. Our results show the following: 1) In general, inbound commuting flows at metro stations tend to decrease with hourly rainfall intensity, varying across station types. The departure time of commuters is usually delayed by rainfall, resulting in a significant stacking effect of inbound flows at metro stations, with a pattern of falling followed by rising. The sensitivity of inbound flows to rainfall varies at different times, high at 0700 and 1700 LT and low at 0800, 0900, 1800, and 1900 LT because of the different levels of flexibility of departure time. 2) Short commuting OD flows (≤15 min) are more affected by rainfall, with an average increase of 7.3% and a maximum increase of nearly 35%, whereas long OD flows (>15 min) decrease slightly. OD flows between residential and industrial areas are more affected by rainfall than those between residential and commercial (service) areas, exhibiting a greater fluctuation of falling followed by rising. The sensitivity of OD flows to rainfall varies across metro lines. The departure stations of rainfall-sensitive lines are mostly distributed in large residential areas that rely heavily on the metro in the morning peak hours and in large industrial parks and commercial centers in the evening peak hours. Our findings reveal the spatiotemporal patterns of commuting flows resulting from rainfall at a finer scale, which provides a sound basis for spatial and temporal response strategies. This study also suggests that attention should be paid to the surges and stacking effects of commuting flows at certain times and areas during rainfall events.

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Fan Yang, Qing He, Jianping Huang, Ali Mamtimin, Xinghua Yang, Wen Huo, Chenglong Zhou, Xinchun Liu, Wenshou Wei, Caixia Cui, Minzhong Wang, Hongjun Li, Lianmei Yang, Hongsheng Zhang, Yuzhi Liu, Xinqian Zheng, Honglin Pan, Lili Jin, Han Zou, Libo Zhou, Yongqiang Liu, Jiantao Zhang, Lu Meng, Yu Wang, Xiaolin Qin, Yongjun Yao, Houyong Liu, Fumin Xue, and Wei Zheng

Abstract

As the second-largest shifting sand desert worldwide, the Taklimakan Desert (TD) represents the typical aeolian landforms in arid regions as an important source of global dust aerosols. It directly affects the ecological environment and human health across East Asia. Thus, establishing a comprehensive environment and climate observation network for field research in the TD region is essential to improve our understanding of the desert meteorology and environment, assess its impact, mitigate potential environmental issues, and promote sustainable development. With a nearly 20-yr effort under the extremely harsh conditions of the TD, the Desert Environment and Climate Observation Network (DECON) has been established completely covering the TD region. The core of DECON is the Tazhong station in the hinterland of the TD. Moreover, the network also includes 4 satellite stations located along the edge of the TD for synergistic observations, and 18 automatic weather stations interspersed between them. Thus, DECON marks a new chapter of environmental and meteorological observation capabilities over the TD, including dust storms, dust emission and transport mechanisms, desert land–atmosphere interactions, desert boundary layer structure, ground calibration for remote sensing monitoring, and desert carbon sinks. In addition, DECON promotes cooperation and communication within the research community in the field of desert environments and climate, which promotes a better understanding of the status and role of desert ecosystems. Finally, DECON is expected to provide the basic support necessary for coordinated environmental and meteorological monitoring and mitigation, joint construction of ecologically friendly communities, and sustainable development of central Asia.

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Gregory C. Johnson, Rick Lumpkin, Tim Boyer, Francis Bringas, Ivona Cetinić, Don P. Chambers, Lijing Cheng, Shenfu Dong, Richard A. Feely, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Eleanor Frajka-Williams, Bryan A. Franz, Yao Fu, Meng Gao, Jay Garg, John Gilson, Gustavo Goni, Benjamin D. Hamlington, Helene T. Hewitt, William R. Hobbs, Zeng-Zhen Hu, Boyin Huang, Svetlana Jevrejeva, William E. Johns, Sato Katsunari, John J. Kennedy, Marion Kersalé, Rachel E. Killick, Eric Leuliette, Ricardo Locarnini, M. Susan Lozier, John M. Lyman, Mark A. Merrifield, Alexey Mishonov, Gary T. Mitchum, Ben I. Moat, R. Steven Nerem, Dirk Notz, Renellys C. Perez, Sarah G. Purkey, Darren Rayner, James Reagan, Claudia Schmid, David A. Siegel, David A. Smeed, Paul W. Stackhouse, William Sweet, Philip R. Thompson, Denis L. Volkov, Rik Wanninkhof, Robert A. Weller, Caihong Wen, Toby K. Westberry, Matthew J. Widlansky, Josh K. Willis, Lisan Yu, and Huai-Min Zhang
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