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Guoyu Ren
,
Hongbin Liu
,
Ziying Chu
,
Li Zhang
,
Xiang Li
,
Weijing Li
,
Yu Chen
,
Ge Gao
, and
Yan Zhang

Abstract

Middle and eastern routes of the South–North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) of China, which are approximately located within the area 28°–42°N and 110°–122°E, are being constructed. This paper investigates the past climatic variations on various time scales using instrumental and proxy data. It is found that annual mean surface air temperature has increased significantly during the past 50–100 years, and winter and spring temperatures in the northern part of the region have undergone the most significant changes. A much more significant increase occurs for annual mean minimum temperature and extreme low temperature than for annual mean maximum temperature and extreme high temperature. No significant trend in annual precipitation is found for the region as a whole for the last 50 and 100 years, although obvious decadal and spatial variation is detectable. A seesaw pattern of annual and summer precipitation variability between the north and the south of the region is evident. Over the last 100 years, the Haihe River basin has witnessed a significant negative trend of annual precipitation, but no similar trend is detected for the Yangtze and Huaihe River basins. Pan evaporation has significantly decreased since the mid-1960s in the region in spite of the fact that the trend appears to have ended in the early 1990s. The negative trend of pan evaporation is very significant in the plain area between the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers. There was a notable series of dry intervals lasting decades in the north of the region. The northern drought of the past 30 years is not the most severe in view of the past 500 years; however, the southern drought during the period from the 1960s to the 1980s may have been unprecedented. The dryness–wetness index (DWI) shows significant oscillations with periodicities of 9.5 and 20 years in the south and 10.5 and 25 years in the north. Longer periodicities in the DWI series include 160–170- and 70–80-yr oscillations in the north, and 100–150-yr oscillations in the south. The observed climate change could have implications for the construction and management of the SNWDP. The official approval and start of the hydro project was catalyzed by the severe multiyear drought of 1997–2003 in the north, and the operation and management of the project in the future will also be influenced by climate change—in particular by precipitation variability. This paper provides a preliminary discussion of the potential implications of observed climate change for the SNWDP.

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Xian-Xiang Li
,
Dennis Y. C. Leung
,
Chun-Ho Liu
, and
K. M. Lam

Abstract

The flow characteristics inside urban street canyons were studied in a laboratory water channel. The approaching flow direction was horizontal and perpendicular to the street axis. The street width was adjusted to form street canyons of aspect ratios 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. The velocity field and turbulent intensity were measured with a laser Doppler anemometer at various locations within the street canyons, which were used to elucidate the flow pattern inside the street canyons. It was found that the previous numerical modeling results are in good agreement with the current experimental results at most locations. For the street canyon of aspect ratio 0.5, which belongs to the wake interference flow regime, the mean and fluctuating velocity components were more difficult to measure as compared with the other two cases because of its more complicated flow pattern. Some guidelines for numerical modeling were developed based on the measurement results. The data presented in this paper can also be used as a comprehensive database for the validation of numerical models.

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Jie Wang
,
Dake Chen
,
Tao Lian
,
Baosheng Li
,
Xiang Han
, and
Ting Liu

Abstract

The sudden halting of the extreme 2014/15 El Niño expected by many was attributed to the absence of westerly wind bursts (WWBs) in late spring and early summer 2014 in previous works, yet the cause of the lack of WWBs was overlooked. Using the ERA5 reanalysis and IBTrACS dataset, as well as a set of coupled model experiments, we showed that the absence of WWBs in May efficiently downgraded the intensity of the 2014/15 El Niño from a moderate to a weak event, and was closely associated with a strong suppressive MJO originating from the central tropical Indian Ocean in mid-April 2014. The suppressive MJO underwent two pathways once passing through the Maritime Continent in early May. Along the eastward pathway, the strong suppressive MJO prevailed over the western-central equatorial Pacific, directly prohibiting the occurrence of WWBs at the equator via inducing equatorial easterly anomaly. Along the northeastward pathway, the downward motions with relative dry air and strong vertical zonal wind shear associated with the suppressive MJO suppressed the activity of the tropical cyclones in the northwestern tropical Pacific, another source of WWBs. Our results indicate that the contributions of MJO to the development of El Niño from both the direct and indirect ways should be taken into account for improving El Niño prediction.

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Cheng-Dong Xu
,
Jin-Feng Wang
,
Mao-Gui Hu
, and
Qing-Xiang Li

Abstract

A probabilistic spatiotemporal approach based on a spatial regression test (SRT-PS) is proposed for the quality control of climate data. It provides a quantitative probability that represents the uncertainty in each temperature observation. The assumption of SRT-PS is that there might be large uncertainty in the station record if there is a large residual difference between the record estimated in the spatial regression test and the true station record. The result of SRT-PS is expressed as a confidence probability ranging from 0 to 1, where a value closer to 1 indicates less uncertainty. The potential of SRT-PS to estimate quantitatively the uncertainty in temperature observations was demonstrated using an annual temperature dataset for China for the period 1971–2000 with seeded errors. SRT-PS was also applied to assess a real dataset, and was compared with two traditional quality control approaches: biweight mean and biweight standard deviation and SRT. The study provides a new approach to assess quantitatively the uncertainty in temperature observations at meteorological stations.

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Shanchuan Xiao
,
Di Cheng
,
Ning Hu
,
Yongwei Wang
,
Huilin Zhang
,
Yuwang Gou
,
Xiang Li
, and
Zhenglin Lv

Abstract

The use of high-albedo roof materials is a simple and effective way to reduce roof temperature, conserve electricity required for air conditioning, and ease power shortages. In this study, three common cooling roof materials, namely, white elastomeric acrylic (AC) paint, a white thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) membrane, and an aluminum foil composite film–covered styrene–butadiene–styrene bituminous (SBS) membranes, were chosen to conduct a nearly 4-yr experiment in Nanjing, China, to study the difference in surface temperatures (ΔTs ) between the cooling roof materials and concrete. The results showed that even during heatwaves, ΔTs was only 2.1°C (AC), 3.8°C (TPO), and 7.0°C (SBS) on average and 6.9°–18.2°C to the greatest extent, which was far less than those reported by many studies. The intensity of solar radiation where the cooling roof material is used and the roof material’s albedo contribute to the difference in ΔTs . The initial albedo of the AC was 0.53 and dropped to 0.16 due to rapid aging, which is close to that of concrete, in less than 3 months. The albedo of TPO and SBS dropped to 0.16 after 9 and 4.7 years, respectively. Further, SBS is the optimal choice in terms of cost and performance, costing only USD 0.67 m−2 yr−1. However, its albedo exhibits seasonal fluctuations and is significantly affected by air pollution. In particular, particulate matter settles on the surface, thereby decreasing the albedo. Nevertheless, manual cleaning can recover the albedo, extend service life, and further reduce costs.

Open access
Xiang-Yu Li
,
Axel Brandenburg
,
Gunilla Svensson
,
Nils E. L. Haugen
,
Bernhard Mehlig
, and
Igor Rogachevskii

Abstract

We investigate the effect of turbulence on the collisional growth of micrometer-sized droplets through high-resolution numerical simulations with well-resolved Kolmogorov scales, assuming a collision and coalescence efficiency of unity. The droplet dynamics and collisions are approximated using a superparticle approach. In the absence of gravity, we show that the time evolution of the shape of the droplet-size distribution due to turbulence-induced collisions depends strongly on the turbulent energy-dissipation rate , but only weakly on the Reynolds number. This can be explained through the dependence of the mean collision rate described by the Saffman–Turner collision model. Consistent with the Saffman–Turner collision model and its extensions, the collision rate increases as even when coalescence is invoked. The size distribution exhibits power-law behavior with a slope of −3.7 from a maximum at approximately 10 up to about 40 μm. When gravity is invoked, turbulence is found to dominate the time evolution of an initially monodisperse droplet distribution at early times. At later times, however, gravity takes over and dominates the collisional growth. We find that the formation of large droplets is very sensitive to the turbulent energy dissipation rate. This is because turbulence enhances the collisional growth between similar-sized droplets at the early stage of raindrop formation. The mean collision rate grows exponentially, which is consistent with the theoretical prediction of the continuous collisional growth even when turbulence-generated collisions are invoked. This consistency only reflects the mean effect of turbulence on collisional growth.

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Xiang-Yu Li
,
Bernhard Mehlig
,
Gunilla Svensson
,
Axel Brandenburg
, and
Nils E. L. Haugen

Abstract

It was previously shown that the superdroplet algorithm for modeling the collision–coalescence process can faithfully represent mean droplet growth in turbulent clouds. An open question is how accurately the superdroplet algorithm accounts for fluctuations in the collisional aggregation process. Such fluctuations are particularly important in dilute suspensions. Even in the absence of turbulence, Poisson fluctuations of collision times in dilute suspensions may result in substantial variations in the growth process, resulting in a broad distribution of growth times to reach a certain droplet size. We quantify the accuracy of the superdroplet algorithm in describing the fluctuating growth history of a larger droplet that settles under the effect of gravity in a quiescent fluid and collides with a dilute suspension of smaller droplets that were initially randomly distributed in space (“lucky droplet model”). We assess the effect of fluctuations upon the growth history of the lucky droplet and compute the distribution of cumulative collision times. The latter is shown to be sensitive enough to detect the subtle increase of fluctuations associated with collisions between multiple lucky droplets. The superdroplet algorithm incorporates fluctuations in two distinct ways: through the random spatial distribution of superdroplets and through the Monte Carlo collision algorithm involved. Using specifically designed numerical experiments, we show that both on their own give an accurate representation of fluctuations. We conclude that the superdroplet algorithm can faithfully represent fluctuations in the coagulation of droplets driven by gravity.

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Xiang-Yu Li
,
Axel Brandenburg
,
Gunilla Svensson
,
Nils E. L. Haugen
,
Bernhard Mehlig
, and
Igor Rogachevskii

Abstract

We investigate the effect of turbulence on the combined condensational and collisional growth of cloud droplets by means of high-resolution direct numerical simulations of turbulence and a superparticle approximation for droplet dynamics and collisions. The droplets are subject to turbulence as well as gravity, and their collision and coalescence efficiencies are taken to be unity. We solve the thermodynamic equations governing temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and the resulting supersaturation fields together with the Navier–Stokes equation. We find that the droplet size distribution broadens with increasing Reynolds number and/or mean energy dissipation rate. Turbulence affects the condensational growth directly through supersaturation fluctuations, and it influences collisional growth indirectly through condensation. Our simulations show for the first time that, in the absence of the mean updraft cooling, supersaturation-fluctuation-induced broadening of droplet size distributions enhances the collisional growth. This is contrary to classical (nonturbulent) condensational growth, which leads to a growing mean droplet size, but a narrower droplet size distribution. Our findings, instead, show that condensational growth facilitates collisional growth by broadening the size distribution in the tails at an early stage of rain formation. With increasing Reynolds numbers, evaporation becomes stronger. This counteracts the broadening effect due to condensation at late stages of rain formation. Our conclusions are consistent with results of laboratory experiments and field observations, and show that supersaturation fluctuations are important for precipitation.

Free access
Cheng-Dong Xu
,
Jin-Feng Wang
,
Mao-Gui Hu
, and
Qing-Xiang Li

Abstract

Some climate datasets are incomplete at certain places and times. A novel technique called the point estimation model of Biased Sentinel Hospitals-based Area Disease Estimation (P-BSHADE) is introduced to interpolate missing data in temperature datasets. Effectiveness of the technique was empirically evaluated in terms of an annual temperature dataset from 1950 to 2000 in China. The P-BSHADE technique uses a weighted summation of observed stations to derive unbiased and minimum error variance estimates of missing data. Both the ratio and covariance between stations were used in calculation of these weights. In this way, interpolation of missing data in the temperature dataset was improved, and best linear unbiased estimates (BLUE) were obtained. Using the same dataset, performance of P-BSHADE was compared against three estimators: kriging, inverse distance weighting (IDW), and spatial regression test (SRT). Kriging and IDW assume a homogeneous stochastic field, which may not be the case. SRT employs spatiotemporal data and has the potential to consider temperature nonhomogeneity caused by topographic differences, but has no objective function for the BLUE. Instead, P-BSHADE takes into account geographic spatial autocorrelation and nonhomogeneity, and maximizes an objective function for the BLUE of the target station. In addition to the theoretical advantages of P-BSHADE over the three other methods, case studies for an annual Chinese temperature dataset demonstrate its empirical superiority, except for the SRT from 1950 to 1970.

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Sen Yang
,
Deqin Li
,
Xiang-yu Huang
,
Zhiquan Liu
,
Xiao Pan
, and
Yunxia Duan

Abstract

The microphysical parameterization scheme employed in four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) plays an important role in the assimilation of humidity and cloud-sensitive observations. In this study, a newly developed full-hydrometeor assimilation scheme, integrating warm-rain and cold-cloud processes, has been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) 4D-Var system. This scheme is based on the WSM6 single-moment microphysical parameterization scheme. Its primary objective is to directly assimilate radar reflectivity observations, with the goal of evaluating its effects on model initialization and subsequent forecasting performance. Four assimilation experiments were conducted to assess the performance of the full-hydrometeor assimilation scheme against the warm-rain assimilation scheme. These experiments also investigated reflectivity assimilation using both indirect and direct methods. We found that the nonlinearity of the radar operator in the two directly reflectivity assimilation experiments requires more iterations for cost function reduction than in indirect assimilation method. The hydrometeor fields were reasonably analyzed using the full-hydrometeor assimilation scheme, particularly improving the simulation of ice-phase hydrometeors and reflectivity above the melting layer. The assimilation of radar reflectivity led to improvements in short-term (0-3 hour) precipitation forecasting with the full-hydrometeor assimilation scheme. Assimilation experiments across multiple case studies reaffirmed that assimilating radar reflectivity observations with the full-hydrometeor assimilation scheme can accelerated model spin-up and yielded enhancements in 0-3 hour total accumulate precipitation forecasts for a range of precipitation thresholds.

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