Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 32 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Xiang-Yu Huang x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Meng Zhang
,
Fuqing Zhang
,
Xiang-Yu Huang
, and
Xin Zhang

Abstract

This study compares the performance of an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with both the three-dimensional and four-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVar and 4DVar) methods of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the contiguous United States in a warm-season month (June) of 2003. The data assimilated every 6 h include conventional sounding and surface observations as well as data from wind profilers, ships and aircraft, and the cloud-tracked winds from satellites. The performances of these methods are evaluated through verifying the 12- to 72-h forecasts initialized twice daily from the analysis of each method against the standard sounding observations. It is found that 4DVar has consistently smaller error than that of 3DVar for winds and temperature at all forecast lead times except at 60 and 72 h when their forecast errors become comparable in amplitude, while the two schemes have similar performance in moisture at all lead times. The forecast error of the EnKF is comparable to that of the 4DVar at 12–36-h lead times, both of which are substantially smaller than that of the 3DVar, despite the fact that 3DVar fits the sounding observations much more closely at the analysis time. The advantage of the EnKF becomes even more evident at 48–72-h lead times; the 72-h forecast error of the EnKF is comparable in magnitude to the 48-h error of 3DVar/4DVar.

Full access
Hongli Wang
,
Juanzhen Sun
,
Xin Zhang
,
Xiang-Yu Huang
, and
Thomas Auligné

Abstract

The major goal of this two-part study is to assimilate radar data into the high-resolution Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model (ARW-WRF) for the improvement of short-term quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) using a four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) technique. In Part I the development of a radar data assimilation scheme within the WRF 4D-Var system (WRF 4D-Var) and the preliminary testing of the scheme are described. In Part II the performance of the enhanced WRF 4D-Var system is examined by comparing it with the three-dimensional variational data assimilation system (WRF 3D-Var) for a convective system over the U.S. Great Plains. The WRF 4D-Var radar data assimilation system has been developed with the existing framework of an incremental formulation. The new development for radar data assimilation includes the tangent-linear and adjoint models of a Kessler warm-rain microphysics scheme and the new control variables of cloud water, rainwater, and vertical velocity and their error statistics. An ensemble forecast with 80 members is used to produce background error covariance. The preliminary testing presented in this paper includes single-observation experiments as well as real data assimilation experiments on a squall line with assimilation windows of 5, 15, and 30 min. The results indicate that the system is able to obtain anisotropic multivariate analyses at the convective scale and improve precipitation forecasts. The results also suggest that the incremental approach with successive basic-state updates works well at the convection-permitting scale for radar data assimilation with the selected assimilation windows.

Full access
Craig S. Schwartz
,
Zhiquan Liu
, and
Xiang-Yu Huang

Abstract

Dual-resolution (DR) hybrid variational-ensemble analysis capability was implemented within the community Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model data assimilation (DA) system, which is designed for limited-area applications. The DR hybrid system combines a high-resolution (HR) background, flow-dependent background error covariances (BECs) derived from a low-resolution ensemble, and observations to produce a deterministic HR analysis. As DR systems do not require HR ensembles, they are computationally cheaper than single-resolution (SR) hybrid configurations, where the background and ensemble have equal resolutions.

Single-observation tests were performed to document some characteristics of limited-area DR hybrid analyses. Additionally, the DR hybrid system was evaluated within a continuously cycling framework, where new DR hybrid analyses were produced every 6 h over ~3.5 weeks. In the DR configuration presented here, the deterministic backgrounds and analyses had 15-km horizontal grid spacing, but the 32-member WRF Model–based ensembles providing flow-dependent BECs for the hybrid had 45-km horizontal grid spacing. The DR hybrid analyses initialized 72-h WRF Model forecasts that were compared to forecasts initialized by an SR hybrid system where both the ensemble and background had 15-km horizontal grid spacing. The SR and DR hybrid systems were coupled to an ensemble adjustment Kalman filter that updated ensembles each DA cycle.

On average, forecasts initialized from 15-km DR and SR hybrid analyses were not statistically significantly different, although tropical cyclone track forecast errors favored the SR-initialized forecasts. Although additional studies over longer time periods and at finer grid spacing are needed to further understand sensitivity to ensemble perturbation resolution, these results suggest users should carefully consider whether SR hybrid systems are worth the extra cost.

Full access
Hongli Wang
,
Juanzhen Sun
,
Shuiyong Fan
, and
Xiang-Yu Huang

Abstract

An indirect radar reflectivity assimilation scheme has been developed within the Weather Research and Forecasting model three-dimensional data assimilation system (WRF 3D-Var). This scheme, instead of assimilating radar reflectivity directly, assimilates retrieved rainwater and estimated in-cloud water vapor. An analysis is provided to show that the assimilation of the retrieved rainwater avoids the linearization error of the Zqr (reflectivity–rainwater) equation. A new observation operator is introduced to assimilate the estimated in-cloud water vapor. The performance of the scheme is demonstrated by assimilating reflectivity observations into the Rapid Update Cycle data assimilation and forecast system operating at Beijing Meteorology Bureau. Four heavy-rain-producing convective cases that occurred during summer 2009 in Beijing, China, are studied using the newly developed system. Results show that on average the assimilation of reflectivity significantly improves the short-term precipitation forecast skill up to 7 h. A diagnosis of the analysis fields of one case shows that the assimilation of reflectivity increases humidity, rainwater, and convective available potential energy in the convective region. As a result, the analysis successfully promotes the developments of the convective system and thus improves the subsequent prediction of the location and intensity of precipitation for this case.

Full access
Anurag Dipankar
,
Stuart Webster
,
Xiang-Yu Huang
, and
Van Quang Doan

Abstract

Biases in simulating the diurnal cycle of convection near the western coast of the island of Sumatra have been investigated using the data from the pilot field campaign of the Years of the Maritime Continent (pre-YMC). The campaign was carried out at a sea [Research Vessel (R/V) Mirai] and a land (Bengkulu, Sumatra) site. Simulations are performed using a tropical configuration of the Met Office model at a grid resolution of 1.5 km in a limited-area mode. The focus of this study is to understand how biases in the input conditions from ECMWF high-resolution deterministic forecast affect the diurnal cycle. Modeled precipitation is found to be delayed and weak, with cold SST bias in the model as the key contributing factor affecting convection at both sites. Colder SST causes a delay in the trigger of convection at Bengkulu by delaying the onset of the local land breeze, which in turn delays the local convergence. The cold outflow from precipitation over the adjacent mountain is also found to be delayed in the model, contributing to the total delay. This delay in the evening convection at Bengkulu is shown to directly affect the timing of nighttime convection at Mirai. Weaker convection at Bengkulu is argued to be due to lower-tropospheric dry humidity bias in the model initial condition. Convection at Mirai is shown to be caused by the convergence of the cold outflow from Bengkulu with the prevailing landward wind over the sea. Both thermodynamic and dynamic conditions near the cold outflow front are found to be less favorable for intense convection in the simulation, the reason for which is argued to be a combination of the cold SST bias and a weaker cold outflow.

Open access
Joshua Chun Kwang Lee
,
Anurag Dipankar
, and
Xiang-Yu Huang

Abstract

The diurnal cycle is the most prominent mode of rainfall variability in the tropics, governed mainly by the strong solar heating and land–sea interactions that trigger convection. Over the western Maritime Continent, complex orographic and coastal effects can also play an important role. Weather and climate models often struggle to represent these physical processes, resulting in substantial model biases in simulations over the region. For numerical weather prediction, these biases manifest themselves in the initial conditions, leading to phase and amplitude errors in the diurnal cycle of precipitation. Using a tropical convective-scale data assimilation system, we assimilate 3-hourly radiosonde data from the pilot field campaign of the Years of Maritime Continent, in addition to existing available observations, to diagnose the model biases and assess the relative impacts of the additional wind, temperature, and moisture information on the simulated diurnal cycle of precipitation over the western coast of Sumatra. We show how assimilating such high-frequency in situ observations can improve the simulated diurnal cycle, verified against satellite-derived precipitation, radar-derived precipitation, and rain gauge data. The improvements are due to a better representation of the sea breeze and increased available moisture in the lowest 4 km prior to peak convection. Assimilating wind information alone was sufficient to improve the simulations. We also highlight how during the assimilation, certain multivariate background error constraints and moisture addition in an ad hoc manner can negatively impact the simulations. Other approaches should be explored to better exploit information from such high-frequency observations over this region.

Open access
Craig S. Schwartz
,
Zhiquan Liu
,
Yongsheng Chen
, and
Xiang-Yu Huang

Abstract

Two parallel experiments were designed to evaluate whether assimilating microwave radiances with a cyclic, limited-area ensemble adjustment Kalman filter (EAKF) could improve track, intensity, and precipitation forecasts of Typhoon Morakot (2009). The experiments were configured identically, except that one assimilated microwave radiances and the other did not. Both experiments produced EAKF analyses every 6 h between 1800 UTC 3 August and 1200 UTC 9 August 2009, and the mean analyses initialized 72-h Weather Research and Forecasting model forecasts. Examination of individual forecasts and average error statistics revealed that assimilating microwave radiances ultimately resulted in better intensity forecasts compared to when radiances were withheld. However, radiance assimilation did not substantially impact track forecasts, and the impact on precipitation forecasts was mixed. Overall, net positive results suggest that assimilating microwave radiances with a limited-area EAKF system is beneficial for tropical cyclone prediction, but additional studies are needed.

Full access
Huizhen Yu
,
Hongli Wang
,
Zhiyong Meng
,
Mu Mu
,
Xiang-Yu Huang
, and
Xin Zhang

Abstract

A forecast sensitivity to initial perturbation (FSIP) analysis tool for the WRF Model was developed. The tool includes two modules respectively based on the conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) method and the first singular vector (FSV) method. The FSIP tool can be used to identify regions of sensitivity for targeted observation research and important influential weather systems for a given forecast metric.

This paper compares the performance of the FSIP tool to its MM5 counterpart, and demonstrates how CNOP, local CNOP (a kind of conditional nonlinear suboptimal perturbation), and FSV were detected using their evolutions of cost function. The column-integrated features of the perturbations were generally similar between the two models. More significant differences were apparent in the details of their vertical distribution. With Typhoon Matsa (2005) in the western North Pacific and a winter storm in the United States (2000) as validation cases, this work examined the tool’s capability to identify sensitive regions for targeted observation and to investigate important influential weather systems. The location and pattern of the sensitive areas identified by CNOP, local CNOP, and FSV were quite similar for both the Typhoon Matsa case and the winter storm case. The main differences were mainly in their impact on the growth of forecast difference and the details of their vertical distributions. For both cases, the wind observations might be more important than temperature observations. The results also showed that local CNOP was more capable of capturing the influence of important weather systems on the forecast of total dry energy in the verification area.

Full access
Byoung-Joo Jung
,
Hyun Mee Kim
,
Thomas Auligné
,
Xin Zhang
,
Xiaoyan Zhang
, and
Xiang-Yu Huang

Abstract

An increasing number of observations have contributed to the performance of numerical weather prediction systems. Accordingly, it is important to evaluate the impact of these observations on forecast accuracy. While the observing system experiment (OSE) requires considerable computational resources, the adjoint-derived method can evaluate the impact of all observational components at a lower cost. In this study, the effect of observations on forecasts is evaluated by the adjoint-derived method using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, its adjoint model, and a corresponding three-dimensional variational data assimilation system in East Asia and the western North Pacific for the 2008 typhoon season. Radiance observations had the greatest total impact on forecasts, but conventional wind observations had the greatest impact per observation. For each observation type, the total impact was greatest for radiosonde and each Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)-A satellite, followed by surface synoptic observation from a land station (SYNOP), Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT), atmospheric motion vector (AMV) wind from a geostationary satellite (GEOAMV), and aviation routine weather reports (METARs). The fraction of beneficial observations was approximately 60%–70%, which is higher than that reported in previous studies. For several analyses of Typhoons Sinlaku (200813) and Jangmi (200815), dropsonde soundings taken near the typhoon had similar or greater observation impacts than routine radiosonde soundings. The sensitivity to the error covariance parameter indicates that reducing (increasing) observation (background) error covariance helps to reduce forecast error in the current analysis framework. The observation impact from OSEs is qualitatively similar to that from the adjoint method for major observation types. This study confirms that radiosonde observations provide primary information on the atmospheric state as in situ observations and that satellite radiances are an essential component of atmospheric observation systems.

Full access
Craig S. Schwartz
,
Zhiquan Liu
,
Xiang-Yu Huang
,
Ying-Hwa Kuo
, and
Chin-Tzu Fong

Abstract

The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) “hybrid” variational-ensemble data assimilation (DA) algorithm was used to initialize WRF model forecasts of three tropical cyclones (TCs). The hybrid-initialized forecasts were compared to forecasts initialized by WRF's three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) DA system. An ensemble adjustment Kalman filter (EAKF) updated a 32-member WRF-based ensemble system that provided flow-dependent background error covariances for the hybrid. The 3DVAR, hybrid, and EAKF configurations cycled continuously for ~3.5 weeks and produced new analyses every 6 h that initialized 72-h WRF forecasts with 45-km horizontal grid spacing. Additionally, the impact of employing a TC relocation technique and using multiple outer loops (OLs) in the 3DVAR and hybrid minimizations were explored.

Model output was compared to conventional, dropwindsonde, and TC “best track” observations. On average, the hybrid produced superior forecasts compared to 3DVAR when only one OL was used during minimization. However, when three OLs were employed, 3DVAR forecasts were dramatically improved but the mean hybrid performance changed little. Additionally, incorporation of TC relocation within the cycling systems further improved the mean 3DVAR-initialized forecasts but the average hybrid-initialized forecasts were nearly unchanged.

Full access