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Nathan J. Steiger
,
Gregory J. Hakim
,
Eric J. Steig
,
David S. Battisti
, and
Gerard H. Roe

Abstract

The efficacy of a novel ensemble data assimilation (DA) technique is examined in the climate field reconstruction (CFR) of surface temperature. A minimalistic, computationally inexpensive DA technique is employed that requires only a static ensemble of climatologically plausible states. Pseudoproxy experiments are performed with both general circulation model (GCM) and Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) data by reconstructing surface temperature fields from a sparse network of noisy pseudoproxies. The DA approach is compared to a conventional CFR approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) for experiments on global domains. DA outperforms PCA in reconstructing global-mean temperature in all experiments and is more consistent across experiments, with a range of time series correlations of 0.69–0.94 compared to 0.19–0.87 for the PCA method. DA improvements are even more evident in spatial reconstruction skill, especially in sparsely sampled pseudoproxy regions and for 20CR experiments. It is hypothesized that DA improves spatial reconstructions because it relies on coherent, spatially local temperature patterns, which remain robust even when glacial states are used to reconstruct nonglacial states and vice versa. These local relationships, as utilized by DA, appear to be more robust than the orthogonal patterns of variability utilized by PCA. Comparing results for GCM and 20CR data indicates that pseudoproxy experiments that rely solely on GCM data may give a false impression of reconstruction skill.

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Tyler Cox
,
Aaron Donohoe
,
Kyle C. Armour
,
Dargan M. W. Frierson
, and
Gerard H. Roe

Abstract

We investigate the linear trends in meridional atmospheric heat transport (AHT) since 1980 in atmospheric reanalysis datasets, coupled climate models, and atmosphere-only climate models forced with historical sea surface temperatures. Trends in AHT are decomposed into contributions from three components of circulation: (i) transient eddies, (ii) stationary eddies, and (iii) the mean meridional circulation. All reanalyses and models agree on the pattern of AHT trends in the Southern Ocean, providing confidence in the trends in this region. There are robust increases in transient-eddy AHT magnitude in the Southern Ocean in the reanalyses, which are well replicated by the atmosphere-only models, while coupled models show smaller magnitude trends. This suggests that the pattern of sea surface temperature trends contributes to the transient-eddy AHT trends in this region. In the tropics, we find large differences between mean-meridional circulation AHT trends in models and the reanalyses, which we connect to discrepancies in tropical precipitation trends. In the Northern Hemisphere, we find less evidence of large-scale trends and more uncertainty, but note several regions with mismatches between models and the reanalyses that have dynamical explanations. Throughout this work we find strong compensation between the different components of AHT, most notably in the Southern Ocean where transient-eddy AHT trends are well compensated by trends in the mean-meridional circulation AHT, resulting in relatively small total AHT trends. This highlights the importance of considering AHT changes holistically, rather than each AHT component individually.

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James S. Risbey
,
Peter J. Lamb
,
Ron L. Miller
,
Michael C. Morgan
, and
Gerard H. Roe

Abstract

A set of regional climate scenarios is constructed for two study regions in North America using a combination of GCM output and synoptic–dynamical reasoning. The approach begins by describing the structure and components of a climate scenario and identifying the dynamical determinants of large-scale and regional climate. Expert judgement techniques are used to categorize the tendencies of these elements in response to increased greenhouse forcing in climate model studies. For many of the basic dynamical elements, tendencies are ambiguous, and changes in sign (magnitude, position) can usually be argued in either direction. A set of climate scenarios is produced for winter and summer, emphasizing the interrelationships among dynamical features, and adjusting GCM results on the basis of known deficiences in GCM simulations of the dynamical features. The scenarios are qualitative only, consistent with the level of precision afforded by the uncertainty in understanding of the dynamics, and in order to provide an outline of the reasoning and chain of contingencies on which the scenarios are based. The three winter scenarios outlined correspond roughly to a north–south displacement of the stationary wave pattern, to an increase in amplitude of the pattern, and to a shift in phase of the pattern. These scenarios illustrate that small changes in the dynamics can lead to large changes in regional climate in some regions, while other regions are apparently insensitive to some of the large changes in dynamics that can be plausibly hypothesized. The dynamics of summer regional climate changes are even more difficult to project, though thermodynamic considerations allow some more general conclusions to be reached in this season. Given present uncertainties it is difficult to constrain regional climate projections.

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