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Kamal Kant Chandrakar
,
Wojciech W. Grabowski
,
Hugh Morrison
, and
George H. Bryan

Abstract

Entrainment mixing and turbulent fluctuations critically impact cloud droplet size distributions (DSDs) in cumulus clouds. This problem is investigated via a new sophisticated modeling framework using the Cloud Model 1 (CM1) LES model and a Lagrangian cloud microphysics scheme—the “superdroplet method” (SDM)—coupled with subgrid-scale (SGS) schemes for particle transport and supersaturation fluctuations. This modeling framework is used to simulate a cumulus congestus cloud. Average DSDs in different cloud regions show broadening from entrainment and secondary cloud droplet activation (activation above the cloud base). DSD width increases with increasing entrainment-induced dilution as expected from past work, except in the most diluted cloud regions. The new modeling framework with SGS transport and supersaturation fluctuations allows a more sophisticated treatment of secondary activation compared to previous studies. In these simulations, it contributes about 25% of the cloud droplet population and impacts DSDs in two contrasting ways: narrowing in extremely diluted regions and broadening in relatively less diluted. SGS supersaturation fluctuations contribute significantly to an increase in DSD width via condensation growth and evaporation. Mixing of superdroplets from SGS velocity fluctuations also broadens DSDs. The relative dispersion (ratio of DSD dispersion and mean radius) negatively correlates with gridscale vertical velocity in updrafts but is positively correlated in downdrafts. The latter is from droplet activation driven by positive SGS supersaturation fluctuations in grid-mean subsaturated conditions. Finally, the sensitivity to model grid length is evaluated. The SGS schemes have greater influence as the grid length is increased, and they partially compensate for the reduced model resolution.

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Kamal Kant Chandrakar
,
Hugh Morrison
,
Wojciech W. Grabowski
,
George H. Bryan
, and
Raymond A. Shaw

Abstract

Supersaturation fluctuations in the atmosphere are critical for cloud processes. A nonlinear dependence on two scalars—water vapor and temperature—leads to different behavior than single scalars in turbulent convection. For modeling such multiscalar processes at subgrid scales (SGS) in large-eddy simulations (LES) or convection-permitting models, a new SGS scheme is implemented in CM1 that solves equations for SGS water vapor and temperature fluctuations and their covariance. The SGS model is evaluated using benchmark direct-numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection with water vapor as in the Michigan Tech Pi Cloud Chamber. This idealized setup allows thorough evaluation of the SGS model without complications from other atmospheric processes. DNS results compare favorably with measurements from the chamber. Results from LES using the new SGS model compare well with DNS, including profiles of water vapor and temperature variances, their covariance, and supersaturation variance. SGS supersaturation fluctuations scale appropriately with changes to the LES grid spacing, with the magnitude of SGS fluctuations decreasing relative to those at the resolved scale as the grid spacing is decreased. Sensitivities of covariance and supersaturation statistics to changes in water vapor flux relative to thermal flux are also investigated by modifying the sidewall conditions. Relative changes in water vapor flux substantially decrease the covariance and increase supersaturation fluctuations even away from boundaries.

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P. R. Field
,
A. Gettelman
,
R. B. Neale
,
R. Wood
,
P. J. Rasch
, and
H. Morrison

Abstract

Identical composite analysis of midlatitude cyclones over oceanic regions has been carried out on both output from the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model, version 3 (CAM3) and multisensor satellite data. By focusing on mean fields associated with a single phenomenon, the ability of the CAM3 to reproduce realistic midlatitude cyclones is critically appraised. A number of perturbations to the control model were tested against observations, including a candidate new microphysics package for the CAM. The new microphysics removes the temperature-dependent phase determination of the old scheme and introduces representations of microphysical processes to convert from one phase to another and from cloud to precipitation species. By subsampling composite cyclones based on systemwide mean strength (mean wind speed) and systemwide mean moisture the authors believe they are able to make meaningful like-with-like comparisons between observations and model output. All variations of the CAM tested overestimate the optical thickness of high-topped clouds in regions of precipitation. Over a system as a whole, the model can both over- and underestimate total high-topped cloud amounts. However, systemwide mean rainfall rates and composite structure appear to be in broad agreement with satellite estimates. When cyclone strength is taken into account, changes in moisture and rainfall rates from both satellite-derived observations and model output as a function of changes in sea surface temperature are in accordance with the Clausius–Clapeyron equation. The authors find that the proposed new microphysics package shows improvement to composite liquid water path fields and cloud amounts.

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Adele K. Morrison
,
Wilma G. C. Huneke
,
Julia Neme
,
Paul Spence
,
Andrew McC. Hogg
,
Matthew H. England
, and
Stephen M. Griffies

Abstract

Winds around the Antarctic continental margin are known to exert a strong control on the local ocean stratification and circulation. However, past work has largely focused on the ocean response to changing winds in limited regional sectors and the circumpolar dynamical response to polar wind change remains uncertain. In this work, we use a high-resolution global ocean–sea ice model to investigate how dense shelf water formation and the temperature of continental shelf waters respond to changes in the zonal and meridional components of the polar surface winds. Increasing the zonal easterly wind component drives an enhanced southward Ekman transport in the surface layer, raising sea level over the continental shelf and deepening coastal isopycnals. The downward isopycnal movement cools the continental shelf, as colder surface waters replace warmer waters below. However, in this model the zonal easterly winds do not impact the strength of the abyssal overturning circulation, in contrast to past idealized model studies. Instead, increasing the meridional wind speed strengthens the abyssal overturning circulation via a sea ice advection mechanism. Enhanced offshore meridional wind speed increases the northward export of sea ice, resulting in decreased sea ice thickness over the continental shelf. The reduction in sea ice coverage leads to increased air–sea heat loss, sea ice formation, brine rejection, dense shelf water formation, and abyssal overturning circulation. Increasing the meridional winds causes warming at depth over most of the continental shelf, due to a heat advection feedback associated with the enhanced overturning circulation.

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Andreas Muhlbauer
,
Wojciech W. Grabowski
,
Szymon P. Malinowski
,
Thomas P. Ackerman
,
George H. Bryan
,
Zachary J. Lebo
,
Jason A. Milbrandt
,
Hugh Morrison
,
Mikhail Ovchinnikov
,
Sarah Tessendorf
,
Julie M. Thériault
, and
Greg Thompson
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H. J. S. Fernando
,
I. Gultepe
,
C. Dorman
,
E. Pardyjak
,
Q. Wang
,
S. W Hoch
,
D. Richter
,
E. Creegan
,
S. Gaberšek
,
T. Bullock
,
C. Hocut
,
R. Chang
,
D. Alappattu
,
R. Dimitrova
,
D. Flagg
,
A. Grachev
,
R. Krishnamurthy
,
D. K. Singh
,
I. Lozovatsky
,
B. Nagare
,
A. Sharma
,
S. Wagh
,
C. Wainwright
,
M. Wroblewski
,
R. Yamaguchi
,
S. Bardoel
,
R. S. Coppersmith
,
N. Chisholm
,
E. Gonzalez
,
N. Gunawardena
,
O. Hyde
,
T. Morrison
,
A. Olson
,
A. Perelet
,
W. Perrie
,
S. Wang
, and
B. Wauer

Abstract

C-FOG is a comprehensive bi-national project dealing with the formation, persistence, and dissipation (life cycle) of fog in coastal areas (coastal fog) controlled by land, marine, and atmospheric processes. Given its inherent complexity, coastal-fog literature has mainly focused on case studies, and there is a continuing need for research that integrates across processes (e.g., air–sea–land interactions, environmental flow, aerosol transport, and chemistry), dynamics (two-phase flow and turbulence), microphysics (nucleation, droplet characterization), and thermodynamics (heat transfer and phase changes) through field observations and modeling. Central to C-FOG was a field campaign in eastern Canada from 1 September to 8 October 2018, covering four land sites in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia and an adjacent coastal strip transected by the Research Vessel Hugh R. Sharp. An array of in situ, path-integrating, and remote sensing instruments gathered data across a swath of space–time scales relevant to fog life cycle. Satellite and reanalysis products, routine meteorological observations, numerical weather prediction model (WRF and COAMPS) outputs, large-eddy simulations, and phenomenological modeling underpin the interpretation of field observations in a multiscale and multiplatform framework that helps identify and remedy numerical model deficiencies. An overview of the C-FOG field campaign and some preliminary analysis/findings are presented in this paper.

Full access
H. J. S. Fernando
,
I. Gultepe
,
C. Dorman
,
E. Pardyjak
,
Q. Wang
,
S. W Hoch
,
D. Richter
,
E. Creegan
,
S. Gaberšek
,
T. Bullock
,
C. Hocut
,
R. Chang
,
D. Alappattu
,
R. Dimitrova
,
D. Flagg
,
A. Grachev
,
R. Krishnamurthy
,
D. K. Singh
,
I. Lozovatsky
,
B. Nagare
,
A. Sharma
,
S. Wagh
,
C. Wainwright
,
M. Wroblewski
,
R. Yamaguchi
,
S. Bardoel
,
R. S. Coppersmith
,
N. Chisholm
,
E. Gonzalez
,
N. Gunawardena
,
O. Hyde
,
T. Morrison
,
A. Olson
,
A. Perelet
,
W. Perrie
,
S. Wang
, and
B. Wauer
Full access