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JAY S. WINSTON

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Jay S. Winston

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THE CLIMATE OF SPRING 1982

A Season of Abnormally Strong Subtropical Westerlies

Jay S. Winston

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THE WEATHER AND CIRCULATION OF MARCH 1955

A Month of Extreme Heat and Cold Over the United States

JAY S. WINSTON

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JAY S. WINSTON

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THE WEATHER AND CIRCULATION OF JUNE 1953 —

The Second Successive June with Record-Breaking Drought and Heat

JAY S. WINSTON

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JAY S. WINSTON

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Global patterns of monthly averages of outgoing long-wave radiation and albedo as derived from TIROS IV radiometer data for the period February–May 1962 are examined relative to each other and with respect to monthly mean mid-tropospheric flow patterns. It is found that long-wave radiation and albedo are inversely correlated on a broad scale, particularly over ocean and non-desert regions. Both quantities show broadscale relationships to the planetary flow patterns over the Northern Hemisphere, particularly the strength and location of features of the wave patterns and the westerlies. Comparisons of long-wave radiation patterns for the same months of two different years, using data from both TIROS IV and VII, show differences averaging about 5 percent and ranging up to about 30 percent of the monthly averaged values. Over the Northern Hemisphere these radiation differences are related to mid-tropospheric circulation differences. Over the equatorial regions and the Southern Hemisphere, where mid-tropospheric circulations are poorly known, the radiation differences serve as indicators of sizable differences in circulation in the two years. Some of the radiation difference patterns are aligned in a series of zonal bands extending over about 60°–90° of longitude and between middle latitudes of both hemispheres; these suggest interactions between large-scale circulations in the two hemispheres.

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JAY S. WINSTON

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Arnold Gruber and Jay S. Winston

A brief description of an earth radiation budget data set, as determined from NOAA operational spacecraft, is presented. The data are continuous from June 1974 through February 1978. Some samples of the mapped outputs are shown, and information on the availability of these data is provided.

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SIGMUND FRITZ and JAY S. WINSTON

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TIROS II measurements of infrared radiation in the 10-micron “water-vapor window” on one orbital pass over the United States are examined in detail relative to the field of cloudiness as derived from TIROS II television pictures and from other meteorological data. The radiation data are found to portray clearly the large-scale systems of middle and dense high cloud overcast, a capability that exists both day and night. Through use of information about the vertical and horizontal temperature fields, useful quantitative estimates of the heights of the tops of cloud systems are derived. In cases where there is a low overcast, the window measurements in themselves may not distinguish clouds from clear areas; but during daytime if television pictures are available, the window measurements can clearly show where a cloud overcast is low in height. Some tentative conclusions about the partial transparency of cirrus clouds to infrared radiation are also presented.

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