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JAY S. WINSTON

Abstract

Global patterns of monthly averages of outgoing long-wave radiation and albedo as derived from TIROS IV radiometer data for the period February–May 1962 are examined relative to each other and with respect to monthly mean mid-tropospheric flow patterns. It is found that long-wave radiation and albedo are inversely correlated on a broad scale, particularly over ocean and non-desert regions. Both quantities show broadscale relationships to the planetary flow patterns over the Northern Hemisphere, particularly the strength and location of features of the wave patterns and the westerlies. Comparisons of long-wave radiation patterns for the same months of two different years, using data from both TIROS IV and VII, show differences averaging about 5 percent and ranging up to about 30 percent of the monthly averaged values. Over the Northern Hemisphere these radiation differences are related to mid-tropospheric circulation differences. Over the equatorial regions and the Southern Hemisphere, where mid-tropospheric circulations are poorly known, the radiation differences serve as indicators of sizable differences in circulation in the two years. Some of the radiation difference patterns are aligned in a series of zonal bands extending over about 60°–90° of longitude and between middle latitudes of both hemispheres; these suggest interactions between large-scale circulations in the two hemispheres.

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THE WEATHER AND CIRCULATION OF DECEMBER 1953

A Month of Fast Westerly Flow

JAY S. WINSTON

Abstract

No Abstract Available.

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JAY S. WINSTON

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No Abstract Available.

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JAY S. WINSTON

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No Abstract Available.

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JAY S. WINSTON

Abstract

Temporal and meridional variations of zonal means of albedo and absorbed solar radiation, derived from digitized satellite pictures, are portrayed for the period February 1967–February 1968 over a broad range of latitudes. The variations in a number of prominent features of the zonal mean albedo—the maxima associated with the intertropical convergence zone, the minima associated with the subtropical anticyclones and equatorial dry zone, and the poleward ascendants of albedo from the subtropics—are revealed in more detail than possible heretofore. The annual courses of zonal mean albedo in three component sectors of 120° longitude each are also shown. The sector covering the zone 0°–115°E differs the most from the overall mean and from the other two sectors covering the Pacific and Atlantic-Americas regions. These differences are most pronounced in the period June–August when the summer monsoon is dominant over Southeast Asia.

Harmonic analysis of the overall zonal mean albedo values for a full year at individual latitude circles between 0° and 45°N indicates the relative prominence of the annual, semiannual, and other long-period oscillations at the various latitudes. The annual cycle is dominant in latitudes 25°–45°N and 10°–15°N. At 0°, 5°, and 20°N, the semi-annual cycle is stronger than the annual cycle. In the Tropics and subtropics, amplitudes of frequencies corresponding to periods of 28–30 days are more prominent than all but the very long-period oscillations (i.e., 90–365 days).

The annual course of the absorbed solar radiation associated with these albedo values exhibits some interesting features brought about by the asymmetries of albedo in the Northern Hemisphere relative to the equinoxes and summer solstice. For example, the consistently higher albedos at all latitudes northward of 20°N and lower values at 10°–15°N in March than in September result in a poleward gradient of absorbed solar radiation considerably stronger at the vernal than at the autumnal equinox. Comparison of albedos and absorbed solar radiation for Northern and Southern Hemispheres near their respective summer solstices reveals that the poleward ascendant of albedo is much stronger in the Southern Hemisphere and that, therefore, the poleward gradient of absorbed solar radiation is considerably stronger too.

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Jay S. Winston

Abstract

Examination of 5-day mean radiation data over the Pacific sector with respect to latitude and time reveals well-marked continuity of the radiation maxima and minima. Variations in the radiation features for the Northern Hemisphere, particularly the pronounced south-north gradient in radiation northward from the subtropics, indicate some definite relationships to variations in the intensity of the westerly circulation, with stronger gradients when the westerlies are strong. Analysis of 5-day mean long-wave radiation data at 45N over the Pacific sector with respect to longitude and time also reveals clear-cut continuity which, to a great extent, is related to the mid-tropospheric wave pattern at 45N. Although the scale of the radiation pattern is smaller than that of the 500-mb height field, preferred positions of radiation maxima and minima relative to the wave pattern are indicated.

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Jay S. Winston

The annual course of zonal wind speed at 700 mb for latitudes 20° to 90 °N is portrayed in three ways—from monthly normal data, from monthly mean data averaged over a recent seven year period, and from 5-day mean data averaged over the same seven years. In a broad sense these representations have much in common, but the 5-day data reveal certain well-marked shorter period variations in the westerlies which appear to be related to singularities of the general circulation.

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THE WEATHER AND CIRCULATION OF MARCH 1955

A Month of Extreme Heat and Cold Over the United States

JAY S. WINSTON

Abstract

No Abstract Available.

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SIGMUND FRITZ and JAY S. WINSTON

Abstract

TIROS II measurements of infrared radiation in the 10-micron “water-vapor window” on one orbital pass over the United States are examined in detail relative to the field of cloudiness as derived from TIROS II television pictures and from other meteorological data. The radiation data are found to portray clearly the large-scale systems of middle and dense high cloud overcast, a capability that exists both day and night. Through use of information about the vertical and horizontal temperature fields, useful quantitative estimates of the heights of the tops of cloud systems are derived. In cases where there is a low overcast, the window measurements in themselves may not distinguish clouds from clear areas; but during daytime if television pictures are available, the window measurements can clearly show where a cloud overcast is low in height. Some tentative conclusions about the partial transparency of cirrus clouds to infrared radiation are also presented.

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Arnold Gruber and Jay S. Winston

A brief description of an earth radiation budget data set, as determined from NOAA operational spacecraft, is presented. The data are continuous from June 1974 through February 1978. Some samples of the mapped outputs are shown, and information on the availability of these data is provided.

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