Search Results

You are looking at 21 - 30 of 30 items for

  • Author or Editor: James J. Hack x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Jeffrey T. Kiehl
,
Christine A. Shields
,
James J. Hack
, and
William D. Collins

Abstract

The climate sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) is described in terms of the equilibrium change in surface temperature due to a doubling of carbon dioxide in a slab ocean version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) and the transient climate response, which is the surface temperature change at the point of doubling of carbon dioxide in a 1% yr−1 CO2 simulation with the fully coupled CCSM. For a fixed atmospheric horizontal resolution across model versions, we show that the equilibrium sensitivity has monotonically increased across CSM1.4, CCSM2, to CCSM3 from 2.01° to 2.27° to 2.47°C, respectively. The transient climate response for these versions is 1.44° to 1.09° to 1.48°C, respectively.

Using climate feedback analysis, it is shown that both clear-sky and cloudy-sky processes have contributed to the changes in transient climate response. The dependence of these sensitivities on horizontal resolution is also explored. The equilibrium sensitivity of the high-resolution (T85) version of CCSM3 is 2.71°C, while the equilibrium response for the low-resolution model (T31) is 2.32°C. It is shown that the shortwave cloud response of the high-resolution version of the CCSM3 is anomalous compared to the low- and moderate-resolution versions.

Full access
Stephen G. Yeager
,
Christine A. Shields
,
William G. Large
, and
James J. Hack

Abstract

The low-resolution fully coupled configuration of the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) is described and evaluated. In this most economical configuration, an ocean at nominal 3° resolution is coupled to an atmosphere model at T31 resolution. There are climate biases associated with the relatively coarse grids, yet the coupled solution remains comparable to higher-resolution CCSM3 results. There are marked improvements in the new solution compared to the low-resolution configuration of CCSM2. In particular, the CCSM3 simulation maintains a robust meridional overturning circulation in the ocean, and it generates more realistic El Niño variability. The improved ocean solution was achieved with no increase in computational cost by redistributing deep ocean and midlatitude resolution into the upper ocean and the key water formation regions of the North Atlantic, respectively. Given its significantly lower resource demands compared to higher resolutions, this configuration shows promise for studies of paleoclimate and other applications requiring long, equilibrated solutions.

Full access
Wayne H. Schubert
,
James J. Hack
,
Pedro L. Silva Dias
, and
Scott R. Fulton

Abstract

A linearized system of equations for the atmosphere's first internal mode in the vertical is derived. The system governs small-amplitude, forced, axisymmetric perturbations on a basic-state tangential flow which is independent of height. When the basic flow is at rest, solutions for the transient and final adjusted state are found by the method of Hankel transforms. Two examples are considered, one with an initial top hat potential vorticity and one with an initial Gaussian-type potential vorticity. These two examples, which extend the work of Fischer (1963) and Obukhov (1949), indicate that the energetical efficiency of cloud-cluster-scale heating in producing balanced vortex flow is very low, on the order of a few percent. The vast majority of the energy is simply partitioned to gravity-inertia waves. In contrast the efficiency of cloud-cluster-scale vorticity transport is very high.

When the basic state possesses positive relative vorticity in an inner region, the energy partition can be substantially modified, and cloud-cluster-scale heating can become considerably more efficient.

The energy partition results have important implications for the lateral boundary condition used in tropical cyclone models. Faced with the fact that a perfect non-reflecting condition is possible but impractical to implement, one is forced to use an approximate condition which causes some reflection of gravity-inertia waves and hence some distortion of the geostrophic adjustment process. The distortion can be kept small by the use of a suitable radiation condition.

Full access
Philip J. Rasch
,
Mark J. Stevens
,
Lucrezia Ricciardulli
,
Aiguo Dai
,
Andrew Negri
,
Robert Wood
,
Byron A. Boville
,
Brian Eaton
, and
James J. Hack

Abstract

The Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (CAM3) is the latest generation of a long lineage of general circulation models produced by a collaboration between the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the scientific research community. Many aspects of the hydrological cycle have been changed relative to earlier versions of the model. It is the goal of this paper to document some aspects of the tropical variability of clouds and the hydrologic cycle in CAM3 on time scales shorter than 30 days and to discuss the differences compared to the observed atmosphere and earlier model versions, with a focus on cloud-top brightness temperature, precipitation, and cloud liquid water path. The transient behavior of the model in response to changes in resolution to various numerical methods used to solve the equations for atmospheric dynamics and transport and to the underlying lower boundary condition of sea surface temperature and surface fluxes has been explored.

The ratio of stratiform to convective rainfall is much too low in CAM3, compared to observational estimates. It is much higher in CAM3 (10%) than the Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3; order 1%–2%) but is still a factor of 4–5 too low compared to observational estimates. Some aspects of the model transients are sensitive to resolution. Higher-resolution versions of CAM3 show too much variability (both in amplitude and spatial extent) in brightness temperature on time scales of 2–10 days compared to observational estimates. Precipitation variance is underestimated on time scales from a few hours to 10 days, compared to observations over ocean, although again the biases are reduced compared to previous generations of the model. The diurnal cycle over tropical landmasses is somewhat too large, and there is not enough precipitation during evening hours. The model tends to produce maxima in precipitation and liquid water path that are a few hours earlier than that seen in the observations over both oceans and land.

Full access
James J. Hack
,
Julie M. Caron
,
Stephen G. Yeager
,
Keith W. Oleson
,
Marika M. Holland
,
John E. Truesdale
, and
Philip J. Rasch

Abstract

The seasonal and annual climatological behavior of selected components of the hydrological cycle are presented from coupled and uncoupled configurations of the atmospheric component of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (CAM3). The formulations of processes that play a role in the hydrological cycle are significantly more complex when compared with earlier versions of the atmospheric model. Major features of the simulated hydrological cycle are compared against available observational data, and the strengths and weaknesses are discussed in the context of specified sea surface temperature and fully coupled model simulations.

The magnitude of the CAM3 hydrological cycle is weaker than in earlier versions of the model, and is more consistent with observational estimates. Major features of the exchange of water with the surface, and the vertically integrated storage of water in the atmosphere, are generally well captured on seasonal and longer time scales. The water cycle response to ENSO events is also very realistic. The simulation, however, continues to exhibit a number of long-standing biases, such as a tendency to produce double ITCZ-like structures in the deep Tropics, and to overestimate precipitation rates poleward of the extratropical storm tracks. The lower-tropospheric dry bias, associated with the parameterized treatment of convection, also remains a simulation deficiency. Several of these biases are exacerbated when the atmosphere is coupled to fully interactive surface models, although the larger-scale behavior of the hydrological cycle remains nearly identical to simulations with prescribed distributions of sea surface temperature and sea ice.

Full access
Cécile Hannay
,
David L. Williamson
,
James J. Hack
,
Jeffrey T. Kiehl
,
Jerry G. Olson
,
Stephen A. Klein
,
Christopher S. Bretherton
, and
Martin Köhler

Abstract

Forecasts of southeast Pacific stratocumulus at 20°S and 85°W during the East Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) cruise of October 2001 are examined with the ECMWF model, the Atmospheric Model (AM) from GFDL, the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) from NCAR, and the CAM with a revised atmospheric boundary layer formulation from the University of Washington (CAM-UW). The forecasts are initialized from ECMWF analyses and each model is run for 3–5 days to determine the differences with the EPIC field observations.

Observations during the EPIC cruise show a well-mixed boundary layer under a sharp inversion. The inversion height and the cloud layer have a strong and regular diurnal cycle. A key problem common to the models is that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) depth is too shallow when compared to EPIC observations. However, it is suggested that improved PBL depths are achieved with more physically realistic PBL schemes: at one end, CAM uses a dry and surface-driven PBL scheme and produces a very shallow PBL, while the ECWMF model uses an eddy-diffusivity/mass-flux approach and produces a deeper and better-mixed PBL. All the models produce a strong diurnal cycle in the liquid water path (LWP), but there are large differences in the amplitude and phase when compared to the EPIC observations. This, in turn, affects the radiative fluxes at the surface and the surface energy budget. This is particularly relevant for coupled simulations as this can lead to a large SST bias.

Full access
William D. Collins
,
Philip J. Rasch
,
Byron A. Boville
,
James J. Hack
,
James R. McCaa
,
David L. Williamson
,
Bruce P. Briegleb
,
Cecilia M. Bitz
,
Shian-Jiann Lin
, and
Minghua Zhang

Abstract

A new version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) has been developed and released to the climate community. CAM Version 3 (CAM3) is an atmospheric general circulation model that includes the Community Land Model (CLM3), an optional slab ocean model, and a thermodynamic sea ice model. The dynamics and physics in CAM3 have been changed substantially compared to implementations in previous versions. CAM3 includes options for Eulerian spectral, semi-Lagrangian, and finite-volume formulations of the dynamical equations. It supports coupled simulations using either finite-volume or Eulerian dynamics through an explicit set of adjustable parameters governing the model time step, cloud parameterizations, and condensation processes. The model includes major modifications to the parameterizations of moist processes, radiation processes, and aerosols. These changes have improved several aspects of the simulated climate, including more realistic tropical tropopause temperatures, boreal winter land surface temperatures, surface insolation, and clear-sky surface radiation in polar regions. The variation of cloud radiative forcing during ENSO events exhibits much better agreement with satellite observations. Despite these improvements, several systematic biases reduce the fidelity of the simulations. These biases include underestimation of tropical variability, errors in tropical oceanic surface fluxes, underestimation of implied ocean heat transport in the Southern Hemisphere, excessive surface stress in the storm tracks, and offsets in the 500-mb height field and the Aleutian low.

Full access
James W. Hurrell
,
M. M. Holland
,
P. R. Gent
,
S. Ghan
,
Jennifer E. Kay
,
P. J. Kushner
,
J.-F. Lamarque
,
W. G. Large
,
D. Lawrence
,
K. Lindsay
,
W. H. Lipscomb
,
M. C. Long
,
N. Mahowald
,
D. R. Marsh
,
R. B. Neale
,
P. Rasch
,
S. Vavrus
,
M. Vertenstein
,
D. Bader
,
W. D. Collins
,
J. J. Hack
,
J. Kiehl
, and
S. Marshall

The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a flexible and extensible community tool used to investigate a diverse set of Earth system interactions across multiple time and space scales. This global coupled model significantly extends its predecessor, the Community Climate System Model, by incorporating new Earth system simulation capabilities. These comprise the ability to simulate biogeochemical cycles, including those of carbon and nitrogen, a variety of atmospheric chemistry options, the Greenland Ice Sheet, and an atmosphere that extends to the lower thermosphere. These and other new model capabilities are enabling investigations into a wide range of pressing scientific questions, providing new foresight into possible future climates and increasing our collective knowledge about the behavior and interactions of the Earth system. Simulations with numerous configurations of the CESM have been provided to phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and are being analyzed by the broad community of scientists. Additionally, the model source code and associated documentation are freely available to the scientific community to use for Earth system studies, making it a true community tool. This article describes this Earth system model and its various possible configurations, and highlights a number of its scientific capabilities.

Full access
William D. Collins
,
Cecilia M. Bitz
,
Maurice L. Blackmon
,
Gordon B. Bonan
,
Christopher S. Bretherton
,
James A. Carton
,
Ping Chang
,
Scott C. Doney
,
James J. Hack
,
Thomas B. Henderson
,
Jeffrey T. Kiehl
,
William G. Large
,
Daniel S. McKenna
,
Benjamin D. Santer
, and
Richard D. Smith

Abstract

The Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) has recently been developed and released to the climate community. CCSM3 is a coupled climate model with components representing the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface connected by a flux coupler. CCSM3 is designed to produce realistic simulations over a wide range of spatial resolutions, enabling inexpensive simulations lasting several millennia or detailed studies of continental-scale dynamics, variability, and climate change. This paper will show results from the configuration used for climate-change simulations with a T85 grid for the atmosphere and land and a grid with approximately 1° resolution for the ocean and sea ice. The new system incorporates several significant improvements in the physical parameterizations. The enhancements in the model physics are designed to reduce or eliminate several systematic biases in the mean climate produced by previous editions of CCSM. These include new treatments of cloud processes, aerosol radiative forcing, land–atmosphere fluxes, ocean mixed layer processes, and sea ice dynamics. There are significant improvements in the sea ice thickness, polar radiation budgets, tropical sea surface temperatures, and cloud radiative effects. CCSM3 can produce stable climate simulations of millennial duration without ad hoc adjustments to the fluxes exchanged among the component models. Nonetheless, there are still systematic biases in the ocean–atmosphere fluxes in coastal regions west of continents, the spectrum of ENSO variability, the spatial distribution of precipitation in the tropical oceans, and continental precipitation and surface air temperatures. Work is under way to extend CCSM to a more accurate and comprehensive model of the earth's climate system.

Full access
Maurice Blackmon
,
Byron Boville
,
Frank Bryan
,
Robert Dickinson
,
Peter Gent
,
Jeffrey Kiehl
,
Richard Moritz
,
David Randall
,
Jagadish Shukla
,
Susan Solomon
,
Gordon Bonan
,
Scott Doney
,
Inez Fung
,
James Hack
,
Elizabeth Hunke
,
James Hurrell
,
John Kutzbach
,
Jerry Meehl
,
Bette Otto-Bliesner
,
R. Saravanan
,
Edwin K. Schneider
,
Lisa Sloan
,
Michael Spall
,
Karl Taylor
,
Joseph Tribbia
, and
Warren Washington

The Community Climate System Model (CCSM) has been created to represent the principal components of the climate system and their interactions. Development and applications of the model are carried out by the U.S. climate research community, thus taking advantage of both wide intellectual participation and computing capabilities beyond those available to most individual U.S. institutions. This article outlines the history of the CCSM, its current capabilities, and plans for its future development and applications, with the goal of providing a summary useful to present and future users.

The initial version of the CCSM included atmosphere and ocean general circulation models, a land surface model that was grafted onto the atmosphere model, a sea-ice model, and a “flux coupler” that facilitates information exchanges among the component models with their differing grids. This version of the model produced a successful 300-yr simulation of the current climate without artificial flux adjustments. The model was then used to perform a coupled simulation in which the atmospheric CO2 concentration increased by 1 % per year.

In this version of the coupled model, the ocean salinity and deep-ocean temperature slowly drifted away from observed values. A subsequent correction to the roughness length used for sea ice significantly reduced these errors. An updated version of the CCSM was used to perform three simulations of the twentieth century's climate, and several projections of the climate of the twenty-first century.

The CCSM's simulation of the tropical ocean circulation has been significantly improved by reducing the background vertical diffusivity and incorporating an anisotropic horizontal viscosity tensor. The meridional resolution of the ocean model was also refined near the equator. These changes have resulted in a greatly improved simulation of both the Pacific equatorial undercurrent and the surface countercurrents. The interannual variability of the sea surface temperature in the central and eastern tropical Pacific is also more realistic in simulations with the updated model.

Scientific challenges to be addressed with future versions of the CCSM include realistic simulation of the whole atmosphere, including the middle and upper atmosphere, as well as the troposphere; simulation of changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the incorporation of an integrated chemistry model; inclusion of global, prognostic biogeochemical components for land, ocean, and atmosphere; simulations of past climates, including times of extensive continental glaciation as well as times with little or no ice; studies of natural climate variability on seasonal-to-centennial timescales; and investigations of anthropogenic climate change. In order to make such studies possible, work is under way to improve all components of the model. Plans call for a new version of the CCSM to be released in 2002. Planned studies with the CCSM will require much more computer power than is currently available.

Full access