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Albeht Rodríguez Vega
,
Juan Carlos Antuña-Marrero
,
David Barriopedro
,
Ricardo García-Herrera
,
Victoria E. Cachorro Revilla
,
Ángel de Frutos Baraja
, and
Juan Carlos Antuña-Sánchez

Abstract

We present a climatological study of aerosols in four representative Caribbean Sea islands that is based on daily mean values of aerosol optical properties for the period 2008–16, using the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE) to classify the dominant aerosol type. A climatological assessment of the spatiotemporal distribution of the main aerosol types, their links with synoptic patterns, and the transport from different sources is provided. Maximum values of AOD occur in the rainy season, coinciding with the minimum in AE and an increased occurrence of dust, whereas the minimum of AOD occurs in the dry season, due to the predominance of marine aerosols. Marine and dust aerosol are more frequent in the easternmost islands and decrease westward because of an increase of continental and mixture dust aerosols. Therefore, the westernmost station displays the most heterogeneous composition of aerosols. Using a weather-type classification, we identify a quantifiable influence of the atmospheric circulation in the distribution of Caribbean aerosols. However, they can occur under relatively weak and/or diverse synoptic patterns, typically involving transient systems and specific configurations of the Azores high that depend on the considered station. Backward trajectories indicate that dry-season marine aerosols and rainy-season dust are transported by air parcels traveling within the tropical easterly winds. The main source region for both types of aerosols is the subtropical eastern Atlantic Ocean, except for Cuba, where the largest contributor to dry-season marine aerosols is the subtropical western Atlantic. Different aerosol types follow similar pathways, suggesting a key role of emission sources in determining the spatiotemporal distribution of Caribbean aerosols.

Full access
Fernando Domínguez-Castro
,
María de la Cruz Gallego
,
Jose M. Vaquero
,
Ricardo García Herrera
,
Victoria Corral
,
Rosa M. Marina Sáez
,
Ricardo M. Trigo
,
Renata Libonati
,
Iván Noguera
,
Ahmed El Kenawy
,
Dhais Peña Angulo
, and
Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano

Abstract

In 1639, the German naturalist Georg Marcgraf established the first astronomical observatory in the Americas, located in Recife (Brazil). There, he made the first daily systematic meteorological observations of wind direction, precipitation, fog, and thunder and lightning from 1640 to 1642. We outline the circumstances that led to this observatory being established and analyze the observations. The range of values obtained from all the variables recorded by Marcgraf corresponds well with Recife’s current climate. However, wetter-than-normal conditions were recorded during 1640, while anomalous concentrations of foggy days occurred from May to December 1641. We hypothesize that these anomalous record foggy days could be associated with the highly explosive eruptions of the Komagatake and Parker volcanoes, both in 1640.

Open access
Stefan Brönnimann
,
Rob Allan
,
Linden Ashcroft
,
Saba Baer
,
Mariano Barriendos
,
Rudolf Brázdil
,
Yuri Brugnara
,
Manola Brunet
,
Michele Brunetti
,
Barbara Chimani
,
Richard Cornes
,
Fernando Domínguez-Castro
,
Janusz Filipiak
,
Dimitra Founda
,
Ricardo García Herrera
,
Joelle Gergis
,
Stefan Grab
,
Lisa Hannak
,
Heli Huhtamaa
,
Kim S. Jacobsen
,
Phil Jones
,
Sylvie Jourdain
,
Andrea Kiss
,
Kuanhui Elaine Lin
,
Andrew Lorrey
,
Elin Lundstad
,
Jürg Luterbacher
,
Franz Mauelshagen
,
Maurizio Maugeri
,
Nicolas Maughan
,
Anders Moberg
,
Raphael Neukom
,
Sharon Nicholson
,
Simon Noone
,
Øyvind Nordli
,
Kristín Björg Ólafsdóttir
,
Petra R. Pearce
,
Lucas Pfister
,
Kathleen Pribyl
,
Rajmund Przybylak
,
Christa Pudmenzky
,
Dubravka Rasol
,
Delia Reichenbach
,
Ladislava Řezníčková
,
Fernando S. Rodrigo
,
Christian Rohr
,
Oleg Skrynyk
,
Victoria Slonosky
,
Peter Thorne
,
Maria Antónia Valente
,
José M. Vaquero
,
Nancy E. Westcottt
,
Fiona Williamson
, and
Przemysław Wyszyński

Abstract

Instrumental meteorological measurements from periods prior to the start of national weather services are designated “early instrumental data.” They have played an important role in climate research as they allow daily to decadal variability and changes of temperature, pressure, and precipitation, including extremes, to be addressed. Early instrumental data can also help place twenty-first century climatic changes into a historical context such as defining preindustrial climate and its variability. Until recently, the focus was on long, high-quality series, while the large number of shorter series (which together also cover long periods) received little to no attention. The shift in climate and climate impact research from mean climate characteristics toward weather variability and extremes, as well as the success of historical reanalyses that make use of short series, generates a need for locating and exploring further early instrumental measurements. However, information on early instrumental series has never been electronically compiled on a global scale. Here we attempt a worldwide compilation of metadata on early instrumental meteorological records prior to 1850 (1890 for Africa and the Arctic). Our global inventory comprises information on several thousand records, about half of which have not yet been digitized (not even as monthly means), and only approximately 20% of which have made it to global repositories. The inventory will help to prioritize data rescue efforts and can be used to analyze the potential feasibility of historical weather data products. The inventory will be maintained as a living document and is a first, critical, step toward the systematic rescue and reevaluation of these highly valuable early records. Additions to the inventory are welcome.

Open access
Stefan Brönnimann
,
Rob Allan
,
Linden Ashcroft
,
Saba Baer
,
Mariano Barriendos
,
Rudolf Brázdil
,
Yuri Brugnara
,
Manola Brunet
,
Michele Brunetti
,
Barbara Chimani
,
Richard Cornes
,
Fernando Domínguez-Castro
,
Janusz Filipiak
,
Dimitra Founda
,
Ricardo García Herrera
,
Joelle Gergis
,
Stefan Grab
,
Lisa Hannak
,
Heli Huhtamaa
,
Kim S. Jacobsen
,
Phil Jones
,
Sylvie Jourdain
,
Andrea Kiss
,
Kuanhui Elaine Lin
,
Andrew Lorrey
,
Elin Lundstad
,
Jürg Luterbacher
,
Franz Mauelshagen
,
Maurizio Maugeri
,
Nicolas Maughan
,
Anders Moberg
,
Raphael Neukom
,
Sharon Nicholson
,
Simon Noone
,
Øyvind Nordli
,
Kristín Björg Ólafsdóttir
,
Petra R. Pearce
,
Lucas Pfister
,
Kathleen Pribyl
,
Rajmund Przybylak
,
Christa Pudmenzky
,
Dubravka Rasol
,
Delia Reichenbach
,
Ladislava Řezníčková
,
Fernando S. Rodrigo
,
Christian Rohr
,
Oleg Skrynyk
,
Victoria Slonosky
,
Peter Thorne
,
Maria Antónia Valente
,
José M. Vaquero
,
Nancy E. Westcott
,
Fiona Williamson
, and
Przemysław Wyszyński
Full access