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Hemantha W. Wijesekera
,
W. J. Teague
,
David W. Wang
,
Z. R. Hallock
,
Conrad A. Luecke
,
Ewa Jarosz
,
H. J. S. Fernando
,
S. U. P. Jinadasa
,
Tommy G. Jensen
,
Adam Rydbeck
, and
Maria Flatau

Abstract

Upper-ocean heat content and heat fluxes of 10–60-day intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) were examined using high-resolution currents and hydrographic fields measured at five deep-water moorings in the central Bay of Bengal (BoB) and satellite observations as part of an international effort examining the role of the ocean on monsoon intraseasonal oscillations (MISOs) in the BoB. Currents, temperature, and salinity were sampled over the upper 600–1200 m from July 2018 to June 2019. The 10–60-day velocity ISOs of magnitudes 20–30 cm s−1 were observed in the upper 200 m, and temperature ISOs as large as 3°C were observed in the thermocline near 100 m. The wavelet cospectral analysis reveals multiple periods of ISOs carrying heat southward. The meridional heat-flux divergence associated with the 10–60-day band was strongest in the central BoB at depths between 40 and 100 m, where the averaged flux divergence over the observational period is as large as 10−7 °C s−1. The vertically integrated heat-flux divergence in the upper 200 m is about 20–30 W m−2, which is comparable to the annual-average net surface heat flux in the northern BoB. Correlations between the heat content over the 26°C isotherm and the outgoing longwave radiation indicate that the atmospheric forcing typically leads changes of the oceanic heat content, but in some instances, during fall–winter months, oceanic heat content leads the atmospheric convection. Our analyses suggest that ISOs play an important role in the upper-ocean heat balance by transporting heat southward, while aiding the air–sea coupling at ISO time scales.

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Hemantha W. Wijesekera
,
Emily Shroyer
,
Amit Tandon
,
M. Ravichandran
,
Debasis Sengupta
,
S. U. P. Jinadasa
,
Harindra J. S. Fernando
,
Neeraj Agrawal
,
K. Arulananthan
,
G. S. Bhat
,
Mark Baumgartner
,
Jared Buckley
,
Luca Centurioni
,
Patrick Conry
,
J. Thomas Farrar
,
Arnold L. Gordon
,
Verena Hormann
,
Ewa Jarosz
,
Tommy G. Jensen
,
Shaun Johnston
,
Matthias Lankhorst
,
Craig M. Lee
,
Laura S. Leo
,
Iossif Lozovatsky
,
Andrew J. Lucas
,
Jennifer Mackinnon
,
Amala Mahadevan
,
Jonathan Nash
,
Melissa M. Omand
,
Hieu Pham
,
Robert Pinkel
,
Luc Rainville
,
Sanjiv Ramachandran
,
Daniel L. Rudnick
,
Sutanu Sarkar
,
Uwe Send
,
Rashmi Sharma
,
Harper Simmons
,
Kathleen M. Stafford
,
Louis St. Laurent
,
Karan Venayagamoorthy
,
Ramasamy Venkatesan
,
William J. Teague
,
David W. Wang
,
Amy F. Waterhouse
,
Robert Weller
, and
Caitlin B. Whalen

Abstract

Air–Sea Interactions in the Northern Indian Ocean (ASIRI) is an international research effort (2013–17) aimed at understanding and quantifying coupled atmosphere–ocean dynamics of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) with relevance to Indian Ocean monsoons. Working collaboratively, more than 20 research institutions are acquiring field observations coupled with operational and high-resolution models to address scientific issues that have stymied the monsoon predictability. ASIRI combines new and mature observational technologies to resolve submesoscale to regional-scale currents and hydrophysical fields. These data reveal BoB’s sharp frontal features, submesoscale variability, low-salinity lenses and filaments, and shallow mixed layers, with relatively weak turbulent mixing. Observed physical features include energetic high-frequency internal waves in the southern BoB, energetic mesoscale and submesoscale features including an intrathermocline eddy in the central BoB, and a high-resolution view of the exchange along the periphery of Sri Lanka, which includes the 100-km-wide East India Coastal Current (EICC) carrying low-salinity water out of the BoB and an adjacent, broad northward flow (∼300 km wide) that carries high-salinity water into BoB during the northeast monsoon. Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) observations during the decaying phase of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) permit the study of multiscale atmospheric processes associated with non-MJO phenomena and their impacts on the marine boundary layer. Underway analyses that integrate observations and numerical simulations shed light on how air–sea interactions control the ABL and upper-ocean processes.

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