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I. A. Renfrew
,
R. S. Pickart
,
K. Våge
,
G. W. K. Moore
,
T. J. Bracegirdle
,
A. D. Elvidge
,
E. Jeansson
,
T. Lachlan-Cope
,
L. T. McRaven
,
L. Papritz
,
J. Reuder
,
H. Sodemann
,
A. Terpstra
,
S. Waterman
,
H. Valdimarsson
,
A. Weiss
,
M. Almansi
,
F. Bahr
,
A. Brakstad
,
C. Barrell
,
J. K. Brooke
,
B. J. Brooks
,
I. M. Brooks
,
M. E. Brooks
,
E. M. Bruvik
,
C. Duscha
,
I. Fer
,
H. M. Golid
,
M. Hallerstig
,
I. Hessevik
,
J. Huang
,
L. Houghton
,
S. Jónsson
,
M. Jonassen
,
K. Jackson
,
K. Kvalsund
,
E. W. Kolstad
,
K. Konstali
,
J. Kristiansen
,
R. Ladkin
,
P. Lin
,
A. Macrander
,
A. Mitchell
,
H. Olafsson
,
A. Pacini
,
C. Payne
,
B. Palmason
,
M. D. Pérez-Hernández
,
A. K. Peterson
,
G. N. Petersen
,
M. N. Pisareva
,
J. O. Pope
,
A. Seidl
,
S. Semper
,
D. Sergeev
,
S. Skjelsvik
,
H. Søiland
,
D. Smith
,
M. A. Spall
,
T. Spengler
,
A. Touzeau
,
G. Tupper
,
Y. Weng
,
K. D. Williams
,
X. Yang
, and
S. Zhou

Abstract

The Iceland Greenland Seas Project (IGP) is a coordinated atmosphere–ocean research program investigating climate processes in the source region of the densest waters of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. During February and March 2018, a field campaign was executed over the Iceland and southern Greenland Seas that utilized a range of observing platforms to investigate critical processes in the region, including a research vessel, a research aircraft, moorings, sea gliders, floats, and a meteorological buoy. A remarkable feature of the field campaign was the highly coordinated deployment of the observing platforms, whereby the research vessel and aircraft tracks were planned in concert to allow simultaneous sampling of the atmosphere, the ocean, and their interactions. This joint planning was supported by tailor-made convection-permitting weather forecasts and novel diagnostics from an ensemble prediction system. The scientific aims of the IGP are to characterize the atmospheric forcing and the ocean response of coupled processes; in particular, cold-air outbreaks in the vicinity of the marginal ice zone and their triggering of oceanic heat loss, and the role of freshwater in the generation of dense water masses. The campaign observed the life cycle of a long-lasting cold-air outbreak over the Iceland Sea and the development of a cold-air outbreak over the Greenland Sea. Repeated profiling revealed the immediate impact on the ocean, while a comprehensive hydrographic survey provided a rare picture of these subpolar seas in winter. A joint atmosphere–ocean approach is also being used in the analysis phase, with coupled observational analysis and coordinated numerical modeling activities underway.

Open access
Britton B. Stephens
,
Matthew C. Long
,
Ralph F. Keeling
,
Eric A. Kort
,
Colm Sweeney
,
Eric C. Apel
,
Elliot L. Atlas
,
Stuart Beaton
,
Jonathan D. Bent
,
Nicola J. Blake
,
James F. Bresch
,
Joanna Casey
,
Bruce C. Daube
,
Minghui Diao
,
Ernesto Diaz
,
Heidi Dierssen
,
Valeria Donets
,
Bo-Cai Gao
,
Michelle Gierach
,
Robert Green
,
Justin Haag
,
Matthew Hayman
,
Alan J. Hills
,
Martín S. Hoecker-Martínez
,
Shawn B. Honomichl
,
Rebecca S. Hornbrook
,
Jorgen B. Jensen
,
Rong-Rong Li
,
Ian McCubbin
,
Kathryn McKain
,
Eric J. Morgan
,
Scott Nolte
,
Jordan G. Powers
,
Bryan Rainwater
,
Kaylan Randolph
,
Mike Reeves
,
Sue M. Schauffler
,
Katherine Smith
,
Mackenzie Smith
,
Jeff Stith
,
Gregory Stossmeister
,
Darin W. Toohey
, and
Andrew S. Watt

Abstract

The Southern Ocean plays a critical role in the global climate system by mediating atmosphere–ocean partitioning of heat and carbon dioxide. However, Earth system models are demonstrably deficient in the Southern Ocean, leading to large uncertainties in future air–sea CO2 flux projections under climate warming and incomplete interpretations of natural variability on interannual to geologic time scales. Here, we describe a recent aircraft observational campaign, the O2/N2 Ratio and CO2 Airborne Southern Ocean (ORCAS) study, which collected measurements over the Southern Ocean during January and February 2016. The primary research objective of the ORCAS campaign was to improve observational constraints on the seasonal exchange of atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen with the Southern Ocean. The campaign also included measurements of anthropogenic and marine biogenic reactive gases; high-resolution, hyperspectral ocean color imaging of the ocean surface; and microphysical data relevant for understanding and modeling cloud processes. In each of these components of the ORCAS project, the campaign has significantly expanded the amount of observational data available for this remote region. Ongoing research based on these observations will contribute to advancing our understanding of this climatically important system across a range of topics including carbon cycling, atmospheric chemistry and transport, and cloud physics. This article presents an overview of the scientific and methodological aspects of the ORCAS project and highlights early findings.

Full access
C. Flamant
,
P. Knippertz
,
A. H. Fink
,
A. Akpo
,
B. Brooks
,
C. J. Chiu
,
H. Coe
,
S. Danuor
,
M. Evans
,
O. Jegede
,
N. Kalthoff
,
A. Konaré
,
C. Liousse
,
F. Lohou
,
C. Mari
,
H. Schlager
,
A. Schwarzenboeck
,
B. Adler
,
L. Amekudzi
,
J. Aryee
,
M. Ayoola
,
A. M. Batenburg
,
G. Bessardon
,
S. Borrmann
,
J. Brito
,
K. Bower
,
F. Burnet
,
V. Catoire
,
A. Colomb
,
C. Denjean
,
K. Fosu-Amankwah
,
P. G. Hill
,
J. Lee
,
M. Lothon
,
M. Maranan
,
J. Marsham
,
R. Meynadier
,
J.-B. Ngamini
,
P. Rosenberg
,
D. Sauer
,
V. Smith
,
G. Stratmann
,
J. W. Taylor
,
C. Voigt
, and
V. Yoboué

Abstract

The European Union (EU)-funded project Dynamics–Aerosol–Chemistry–Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) investigates the relationship between weather, climate, and air pollution in southern West Africa—an area with rapid population growth, urbanization, and an increase in anthropogenic aerosol emissions. The air over this region contains a unique mixture of natural and anthropogenic gases, liquid droplets, and particles, emitted in an environment in which multilayer clouds frequently form. These exert a large influence on the local weather and climate, mainly owing to their impact on radiation, the surface energy balance, and thus the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer.

In June and July 2016, DACCIWA organized a major international field campaign in Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, and Nigeria. Three supersites in Kumasi, Savè, and Ile-Ife conducted permanent measurements and 15 intensive observation periods. Three European aircraft together flew 50 research flights between 27 June and 16 July 2016, for a total of 155 h. DACCIWA scientists launched weather balloons several times a day across the region (772 in total), measured urban emissions, and evaluated health data. The main objective was to build robust statistics of atmospheric composition, dynamics, and low-level cloud properties in various chemical landscapes to investigate their mutual interactions.

This article presents an overview of the DACCIWA field campaign activities as well as some first research highlights. The rich data obtained during the campaign will be made available to the scientific community and help to advance scientific understanding, modeling, and monitoring of the atmosphere over southern West Africa.

Full access
G. de Boer
,
C. Diehl
,
J. Jacob
,
A. Houston
,
S. W. Smith
,
P. Chilson
,
D. G. Schmale III
,
J. Intrieri
,
J. Pinto
,
J. Elston
,
D. Brus
,
O. Kemppinen
,
A. Clark
,
D. Lawrence
,
S. C. C. Bailey
,
M.P. Sama
,
A. Frazier
,
C. Crick
,
V. Natalie
,
E. Pillar-Little
,
P. Klein
,
S. Waugh
,
J. K. Lundquist
,
L. Barbieri
,
S. T. Kral
,
A. A. Jensen
,
C. Dixon
,
S. Borenstein
,
D. Hesselius
,
K. Human
,
P. Hall
,
B. Argrow
,
T. Thornberry
,
R. Wright
, and
J. T. Kelly
Full access
M. Ades
,
R. Adler
,
Rob Allan
,
R. P. Allan
,
J. Anderson
,
Anthony Argüez
,
C. Arosio
,
J. A. Augustine
,
C. Azorin-Molina
,
J. Barichivich
,
J. Barnes
,
H. E. Beck
,
Andreas Becker
,
Nicolas Bellouin
,
Angela Benedetti
,
David I. Berry
,
Stephen Blenkinsop
,
Olivier. Bock
,
Michael G. Bosilovich
,
Olivier. Boucher
,
S. A. Buehler
,
Laura. Carrea
,
Hanne H. Christiansen
,
F. Chouza
,
John R. Christy
,
E.-S. Chung
,
Melanie Coldewey-Egbers
,
Gil P. Compo
,
Owen R. Cooper
,
Curt Covey
,
A. Crotwell
,
Sean M. Davis
,
Elvira de Eyto
,
Richard A. M de Jeu
,
B.V. VanderSat
,
Curtis L. DeGasperi
,
Doug Degenstein
,
Larry Di Girolamo
,
Martin T. Dokulil
,
Markus G. Donat
,
Wouter A. Dorigo
,
Imke Durre
,
Geoff S. Dutton
,
G. Duveiller
,
James W. Elkins
,
Vitali E. Fioletov
,
Johannes Flemming
,
Michael J. Foster
,
Richard A. Frey
,
Stacey M. Frith
,
Lucien Froidevaux
,
J. Garforth
,
S. K. Gupta
,
Leopold Haimberger
,
Brad D. Hall
,
Ian Harris
,
Andrew K Heidinger
,
D. L. Hemming
,
Shu-peng (Ben) Ho
,
Daan Hubert
,
Dale F. Hurst
,
I. Hüser
,
Antje Inness
,
K. Isaksen
,
Viju John
,
Philip D. Jones
,
J. W. Kaiser
,
S. Kelly
,
S. Khaykin
,
R. Kidd
,
Hyungiun Kim
,
Z. Kipling
,
B. M. Kraemer
,
D. P. Kratz
,
R. S. La Fuente
,
Xin Lan
,
Kathleen O. Lantz
,
T. Leblanc
,
Bailing Li
,
Norman G Loeb
,
Craig S. Long
,
Diego Loyola
,
Wlodzimierz Marszelewski
,
B. Martens
,
Linda May
,
Michael Mayer
,
M. F. McCabe
,
Tim R. McVicar
,
Carl A. Mears
,
W. Paul Menzel
,
Christopher J. Merchant
,
Ben R. Miller
,
Diego G. Miralles
,
Stephen A. Montzka
,
Colin Morice
,
Jens Mühle
,
R. Myneni
,
Julien P. Nicolas
,
Jeannette Noetzli
,
Tim J. Osborn
,
T. Park
,
A. Pasik
,
Andrew M. Paterson
,
Mauri S. Pelto
,
S. Perkins-Kirkpatrick
,
G. Pétron
,
C. Phillips
,
Bernard Pinty
,
S. Po-Chedley
,
L. Polvani
,
W. Preimesberger
,
M. Pulkkanen
,
W. J. Randel
,
Samuel Rémy
,
L. Ricciardulli
,
A. D. Richardson
,
L. Rieger
,
David A. Robinson
,
Matthew Rodell
,
Karen H. Rosenlof
,
Chris Roth
,
A. Rozanov
,
James A. Rusak
,
O. Rusanovskaya
,
T. Rutishäuser
,
Ahira Sánchez-Lugo
,
P. Sawaengphokhai
,
T. Scanlon
,
Verena Schenzinger
,
S. Geoffey Schladow
,
R. W Schlegel
,
Eawag Schmid, Martin
,
H. B. Selkirk
,
S. Sharma
,
Lei Shi
,
S. V. Shimaraeva
,
E. A. Silow
,
Adrian J. Simmons
,
C. A. Smith
,
Sharon L Smith
,
B. J. Soden
,
Viktoria Sofieva
,
T. H. Sparks
,
Paul W. Stackhouse Jr.
,
Wolfgang Steinbrecht
,
Dimitri A. Streletskiy
,
G. Taha
,
Hagen Telg
,
S. J. Thackeray
,
M. A. Timofeyev
,
Kleareti Tourpali
,
Mari R. Tye
,
Ronald J. van der A
,
Robin, VanderSat B.V. van der Schalie
,
Gerard van der SchrierW. Paul
,
Guido R. van der Werf
,
Piet Verburg
,
Jean-Paul Vernier
,
Holger Vömel
,
Russell S. Vose
,
Ray Wang
,
Shohei G. Watanabe
,
Mark Weber
,
Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer
,
David Wiese
,
Anne C. Wilber
,
Jeanette D. Wild
,
Takmeng Wong
,
R. Iestyn Woolway
,
Xungang Yin
,
Lin Zhao
,
Guanguo Zhao
,
Xinjia Zhou
,
Jerry R. Ziemke
, and
Markus Ziese
Free access
Christopher J. White
,
Daniela I. V. Domeisen
,
Nachiketa Acharya
,
Elijah A. Adefisan
,
Michael L. Anderson
,
Stella Aura
,
Ahmed A. Balogun
,
Douglas Bertram
,
Sonia Bluhm
,
David J. Brayshaw
,
Jethro Browell
,
Dominik Büeler
,
Andrew Charlton-Perez
,
Xandre Chourio
,
Isadora Christel
,
Caio A. S. Coelho
,
Michael J. DeFlorio
,
Luca Delle Monache
,
Francesca Di Giuseppe
,
Ana María García-Solórzano
,
Peter B. Gibson
,
Lisa Goddard
,
Carmen González Romero
,
Richard J. Graham
,
Robert M. Graham
,
Christian M. Grams
,
Alan Halford
,
W. T. Katty Huang
,
Kjeld Jensen
,
Mary Kilavi
,
Kamoru A. Lawal
,
Robert W. Lee
,
David MacLeod
,
Andrea Manrique-Suñén
,
Eduardo S. P. R. Martins
,
Carolyn J. Maxwell
,
William J. Merryfield
,
Ángel G. Muñoz
,
Eniola Olaniyan
,
George Otieno
,
John A. Oyedepo
,
Lluís Palma
,
Ilias G. Pechlivanidis
,
Diego Pons
,
F. Martin Ralph
,
Dirceu S. Reis Jr.
,
Tomas A. Remenyi
,
James S. Risbey
,
Donald J. C. Robertson
,
Andrew W. Robertson
,
Stefan Smith
,
Albert Soret
,
Ting Sun
,
Martin C. Todd
,
Carly R. Tozer
,
Francisco C. Vasconcelos Jr.
,
Ilaria Vigo
,
Duane E. Waliser
,
Fredrik Wetterhall
, and
Robert G. Wilson

Abstract

The subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) predictive time scale, encompassing lead times ranging from 2 weeks to a season, is at the frontier of forecasting science. Forecasts on this time scale provide opportunities for enhanced application-focused capabilities to complement existing weather and climate services and products. There is, however, a “knowledge–value” gap, where a lack of evidence and awareness of the potential socioeconomic benefits of S2S forecasts limits their wider uptake. To address this gap, here we present the first global community effort at summarizing relevant applications of S2S forecasts to guide further decision-making and support the continued development of S2S forecasts and related services. Focusing on 12 sectoral case studies spanning public health, agriculture, water resource management, renewable energy and utilities, and emergency management and response, we draw on recent advancements to explore their application and utility. These case studies mark a significant step forward in moving from potential to actual S2S forecasting applications. We show that by placing user needs at the forefront of S2S forecast development—demonstrating both skill and utility across sectors—this dialogue can be used to help promote and accelerate the awareness, value, and cogeneration of S2S forecasts. We also highlight that while S2S forecasts are increasingly gaining interest among users, incorporating probabilistic S2S forecasts into existing decision-making operations is not trivial. Nevertheless, S2S forecasting represents a significant opportunity to generate useful, usable, and actionable forecast applications for and with users that will increasingly unlock the potential of this forecasting time scale.

Full access
Matthew L. Druckenmiller
,
Twila A. Moon
,
Richard L. Thoman
,
Thomas J. Ballinger
,
Logan T. Berner
,
Germar H. Bernhard
,
Uma S. Bhatt
,
Jarle W. Bjerke
,
Jason E. Box
,
R. Brown
,
John Cappelen
,
Hanne H. Christiansen
,
B. Decharme
,
C. Derksen
,
Dmitry Divine
,
D. S. Drozdov
,
A. Elias Chereque
,
Howard E. Epstein
,
L. M. Farquharson
,
Sinead L. Farrell
,
Robert S. Fausto
,
Xavier Fettweis
,
Vitali E. Fioletov
,
Bruce C. Forbes
,
Gerald V. Frost
,
Emily Gargulinski
,
Sebastian Gerland
,
Scott J. Goetz
,
Z. Grabinski
,
Jens-Uwe Grooß
,
Christian Haas
,
Edward Hanna
,
Inger Hanssen-Bauer
,
Stefan Hendricks
,
Robert M. Holmes
,
Iolanda Ialongo
,
K. Isaksen
,
Piyush Jain
,
Bjørn Johnsen
,
L. Kaleschke
,
A. L. Kholodov
,
Seong-Joong Kim
,
Niels J. Korsgaard
,
Zachary Labe
,
Kaisa Lakkala
,
Mark J. Lara
,
Bryant Loomis
,
K. Luojus
,
Matthew J. Macander
,
G. V. Malkova
,
Kenneth D. Mankoff
,
Gloria L. Manney
,
James W. McClelland
,
Walter N. Meier
,
Thomas Mote
,
L. Mudryk
,
Rolf Müller
,
K. E. Nyland
,
James E. Overland
,
T. Park
,
Olga Pavlova
,
Don Perovich
,
Alek Petty
,
Gareth K. Phoenix
,
Martha K. Raynolds
,
C. H. Reijmer
,
Jacqueline Richter-Menge
,
Robert Ricker
,
Vladimir E. Romanovsky
,
Lindsay Scott
,
Hazel Shapiro
,
Alexander I. Shiklomanov
,
Nikolai I. Shiklomanov
,
C. J. P. P. Smeets
,
Sharon L. Smith
,
Amber Soja
,
Robert G. M. Spencer
,
Sandy Starkweather
,
Dimitri A. Streletskiy
,
Anya Suslova
,
Tove Svendby
,
Suzanne E. Tank
,
Marco Tedesco
,
X. Tian-Kunze
,
Mary-Louise Timmermans
,
Hans Tømmervik
,
Mikhail Tretiakov
,
Mark Tschudi
,
Sofia Vakhutinsky
,
Dirk van As
,
R. S. W. van de Wal
,
Sander Veraverbeke
,
Donald A. Walker
,
John E. Walsh
,
Muyin Wang
,
Melinda Webster
,
Øyvind Winton
,
K. Wood
,
Alison York
, and
Robert Ziel
Free access
T. A. Moon
,
R. Thoman
,
M. L. Druckenmiller
,
Brandon Ahmasuk
,
Stacia A. Backensto
,
Thomas J. Ballinger
,
Rasmus Benestad
,
Logan. T. Berner
,
Germar H. Bernhard
,
Uma S. Bhatt
,
Siiri Bigalke
,
W. BjerkeJarle
,
Brian Brettschneider
,
Hanne H. Christiansen
,
Judah L. Cohen
,
Bertrand Decharme
,
Chris Derksen
,
Dmitry Divine
,
Jensen Drost
,
Matthew L. Druckenmiller
,
Alesksandra EliasChereque
,
Howard E. Epstein
,
Robert S. Fausto
,
Xavier Fettweis
,
Vitali E. Fioletov
,
Bruce C. Forbes
,
Gerald V. Frost
,
Sebastian Gerland
,
Scott J. Goetz
,
Jens-Uwe Grooß
,
Edward Hanna
,
Inger Hanssen-Bauer
,
Stefan Hendricks
,
Robert M. Holmes
,
Iolanda Ialongo
,
Ketil Isaksen
,
Bjørn Johnsen
,
Timothy Jones
,
Robb S.A. Kaler
,
Lars Kaleschke
,
Seong-Joong Kim
,
Zachary M. Labe
,
Rick Lader
,
Kaisa Lakkala
,
Mark J. Lara
,
Jackie Lindsey
,
Bryant D. Loomis
,
Kari Luojus
,
Matthew J. Macander
,
Jostein Mamen
,
Ken D. Mankoff
,
Gloria L. Manney
,
Stephanie A. McAfee
,
James W. McClelland
,
Walter N. Meier
,
Twila A. Moon
,
G. W. K. Moore
,
Thomas L. Mote
,
Lawrence Mudryk
,
Rolf Müller
,
Kelsey E. Nyland
,
James E. Overland
,
Julia K. Parrish
,
Donald K. Perovich
,
Guðrún Nína Petersen
,
Alek Petty
,
Gareth K. Phoenix
,
Kristin Poinar
,
Mika Rantanen
,
Robert Ricker
,
Vladimir E. Romanovsky
,
Shawn P. Serbin
,
Mark C. Serreze
,
Gay Sheffield
,
Alexander I. Shiklomanov
,
Nikolay I. Shiklomanov
,
Sharon L. Smith
,
Robert G. M. Spencer
,
Dmitry A. Streletskiy
,
Anya Suslova
,
Tove Svendby
,
Suzanne E. Tank
,
Marco Tedesco
,
Richard L. Thoman
,
Xiangshan Tian-Kunze
,
Mary-Louise Timmermans
,
Hans Tømmervik
,
Mikhail Tretiakov
,
Donald A. Walker
,
John E. Walsh
,
Muyin Wang
,
Melinda Webster
,
Adrian Wehrlé
,
Dedi Yang
,
Scott Zolkos
,
Jessicca Allen
,
Amy V. Camper
,
Bridgette O. Haley
,
Gregory Hammer
,
S. Love-Brotak
,
Laura Ohlmann
,
Lukas Noguchi
,
Deborah B. Riddle
, and
Sara W. Veasey
Open access
Brian J. Butterworth
,
Ankur R. Desai
,
Philip A. Townsend
,
Grant W. Petty
,
Christian G. Andresen
,
Timothy H. Bertram
,
Eric L. Kruger
,
James K. Mineau
,
Erik R. Olson
,
Sreenath Paleri
,
Rosalyn A. Pertzborn
,
Claire Pettersen
,
Paul C. Stoy
,
Jonathan E. Thom
,
Michael P. Vermeuel
,
Timothy J. Wagner
,
Daniel B. Wright
,
Ting Zheng
,
Stefan Metzger
,
Mark D. Schwartz
,
Trevor J. Iglinski
,
Matthias Mauder
,
Johannes Speidel
,
Hannes Vogelmann
,
Luise Wanner
,
Travis J. Augustine
,
William O. J. Brown
,
Steven P. Oncley
,
Michael Buban
,
Temple R. Lee
,
Patricia Cleary
,
David J. Durden
,
Christopher R. Florian
,
Kathleen Lantz
,
Laura D. Riihimaki
,
Joseph Sedlar
,
Tilden P. Meyers
,
David M. Plummer
,
Eliceo Ruiz Guzman
,
Elizabeth N. Smith
,
Matthias Sühring
,
David D. Turner
,
Zhien Wang
,
Loren D. White
, and
James M. Wilczak

Abstract

The Chequamegon Heterogeneous Ecosystem Energy-Balance Study Enabled by a High-Density Extensive Array of Detectors 2019 (CHEESEHEAD19) is an ongoing National Science Foundation project based on an intensive field campaign that occurred from June to October 2019. The purpose of the study is to examine how the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) responds to spatial heterogeneity in surface energy fluxes. One of the main objectives is to test whether lack of energy balance closure measured by eddy covariance (EC) towers is related to mesoscale atmospheric processes. Finally, the project evaluates data-driven methods for scaling surface energy fluxes, with the aim to improve model–data comparison and integration. To address these questions, an extensive suite of ground, tower, profiling, and airborne instrumentation was deployed over a 10 km × 10 km domain of a heterogeneous forest ecosystem in the Chequamegon–Nicolet National Forest in northern Wisconsin, United States, centered on an existing 447-m tower that anchors an AmeriFlux/NOAA supersite (US-PFa/WLEF). The project deployed one of the world’s highest-density networks of above-canopy EC measurements of surface energy fluxes. This tower EC network was coupled with spatial measurements of EC fluxes from aircraft; maps of leaf and canopy properties derived from airborne spectroscopy, ground-based measurements of plant productivity, phenology, and physiology; and atmospheric profiles of wind, water vapor, and temperature using radar, sodar, lidar, microwave radiometers, infrared interferometers, and radiosondes. These observations are being used with large-eddy simulation and scaling experiments to better understand submesoscale processes and improve formulations of subgrid-scale processes in numerical weather and climate models.

Open access
Brian J. Butterworth
,
Ankur R. Desai
,
Stefan Metzger
,
Philip A. Townsend
,
Mark D. Schwartz
,
Grant W. Petty
,
Matthias Mauder
,
Hannes Vogelmann
,
Christian G. Andresen
,
Travis J. Augustine
,
Timothy H. Bertram
,
William O.J. Brown
,
Michael Buban
,
Patricia Cleary
,
David J. Durden
,
Christopher R. Florian
,
Trevor J. Iglinski
,
Eric L. Kruger
,
Kathleen Lantz
,
Temple R. Lee
,
Tilden P. Meyers
,
James K. Mineau
,
Erik R. Olson
,
Steven P. Oncley
,
Sreenath Paleri
,
Rosalyn A. Pertzborn
,
Claire Pettersen
,
David M. Plummer
,
Laura D. Riihimaki
,
Eliceo Ruiz Guzman
,
Joseph Sedlar
,
Elizabeth N. Smith
,
Johannes Speidel
,
Paul C. Stoy
,
Matthias Sühring
,
Jonathan E. Thom
,
David D. Turner
,
Michael P. Vermeuel
,
Timothy J. Wagner
,
Zhien Wang
,
Luise Wanner
,
Loren D. White
,
James M. Wilczak
,
Daniel B. Wright
, and
Ting Zheng
Full access