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Yingbin He
,
Yanmin Yao
,
Huajun Tang
,
Youqi Chen
,
Jianping Li
,
Peng Yang
,
Zhongxin Chen
,
Xiaoping Xin
,
Limin Wang
,
Dandan Li
, and
Hui Deng

Abstract

To understand agro-climatic suitability for spring soybean growth in north China, an integrated crop-response-function method was developed. This method includes crop-response functions for temperature, precipitation, and sunshine and is assessed by a weighting method based on the coefficient of determination. The results show that the most suitable area (S1) for spring soybean growth occupied approximately 21.35% of the total area of north China. Among three types of spring soybeans of early maturity, middle maturity, and late maturity, middle maturity was the most suitable variety to grow in the study area, covering nearly 1.133 × 106 km2 or about 99.75% of the total area of S1. As a result of this study, the authors suggest that breeders pay more attention to middle-maturity cultivars in north China. The findings from this study may provide useful information for policy makers issuing guidelines for agricultural production.

Full access
Hui Zhou
,
Hengchang Liu
,
Shuwen Tan
,
Wenlong Yang
,
Yao Li
,
Xueqi Liu
,
Qiang Ren
, and
William K. Dewar

Abstract

The structure and variations of the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) in the far western Pacific Ocean during 2014–16 are investigated using repeated in situ hydrographic data, altimeter data, Argo data, and reanalysis data. The NECC shifted ~1° southward and intensified significantly with its transport exceeding 40 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1), nearly double its climatology value, during the developing phase of the 2015/16 El Niño event. Observations show that the 2015/16 El Niño exerted a comparable impact on the NECC with that of the extreme 1997/98 El Niño in the far western Pacific Ocean. Baroclinic instability provided the primary energy source for the eddy kinetic energy (EKE) in the 2015/16 El Niño, which differs from the traditional understanding of the energy source of EKE as barotropic instability in low-latitude ocean. The enhanced vertical shear and the reduced density jump between the NECC layer and the North Equatorial Subsurface Current (NESC) layer renders the NECC–NESC system baroclinically unstable in the western Pacific Ocean during El Niño developing phase. The eddy–mean flow interactions here are diverse associated with various states of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

Open access
Zhiyong Meng
,
Lanqiang Bai
,
Murong Zhang
,
Zhifang Wu
,
Zhaohui Li
,
Meijuan Pu
,
Yongguang Zheng
,
Xiaohua Wang
,
Dan Yao
,
Ming Xue
,
Kun Zhao
,
Zhaoming Li
,
Siqi Peng
, and
Liye Li

Abstract

An EF4 supercellular tornado hit Funing County, Yancheng, Jiangsu Province, China, from about 1410 to 1500 local standard time 23 June 2016, causing 98 fatalities and 846 injuries. It was the deadliest tornado in the past 40 years in China. This paper documents the storm environment, evolution of the radar signatures, real-time operational tornado warning services, and the damage distribution during this event. The tornado was spawned from a supercell that developed ahead of an upper-level trough extending southwestward from a low pressure vortex in northeast China and dissipated following the occlusion of the tornado vortex. The radar-based rotational velocity of the mesocyclone peaked at 42.2 m s−1. The strength of the tornado vortex signature (gate-to-gate azimuthal radial velocity difference) peaked at 84.5 m s−1. Surface observations at 1-min intervals from a mesoscale network of in situ surface weather stations revealed the surface wind pattern associated with the mesocyclone, such as convergent and rotational flows. The tornado formed after the peak updraft strength of the supercell, producing a damage swath that was 34.5 km long and with a maximum width of 4.1 km. The review of the tornado warning process for this event reveals that there is much work to be done to develop operational tornado forecast and warning services for China.

Full access
Lei Wang
,
Tandong Yao
,
Chenhao Chai
,
Lan Cuo
,
Fengge Su
,
Fan Zhang
,
Zhijun Yao
,
Yinsheng Zhang
,
Xiuping Li
,
Jia Qi
,
Zhidan Hu
,
Jingshi Liu
, and
Yuanwei Wang

Abstract

Monitoring changes in river runoff at the Third Pole (TP) is important because rivers in this region support millions of inhabitants in Asia and are very sensitive to climate change. Under the influence of climate change and intensified cryospheric melt, river runoff has changed markedly at the TP, with significant effects on the spatial and temporal water resource distribution that threaten water supply and food security for people living downstream. Despite some in situ observations and discharge estimates from state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, the total river runoff (TRR) for the TP has never been reliably quantified, and its response to climate change remains unclear. As part of the Chinese Academy of Sciences’ “Pan-Third Pole Environment Study for a Green Silk Road,” the TP-River project aims to construct a comprehensive runoff observation network at mountain outlets (where rivers leave the mountains and enter the plains) for 13 major rivers in the TP region, thereby enabling TRR to be accurately quantified. The project also integrates discharge estimates from remote sensing and cryosphere–hydrology modeling to investigate long-term changes in TRR and the relationship between the TRR variations and westerly/monsoon. Based on recent efforts, the project provides the first estimate (656 ± 23 billion m3) of annual TRR for the 13 TP rivers in 2018. The annual river runoff at the mountain outlets varies widely between the different TP rivers, ranging from 2 to 176 billion m3, with higher values mainly corresponding to rivers in the Indian monsoon domain, rather than in the westerly domain.

Open access
Lei Wang
,
Zhi-Jun Yao
,
Li-Guang Jiang
,
Rui Wang
,
Shan-Shan Wu
, and
Zhao-Fei Liu

Abstract

The spatiotemporal changes in 21 indices of extreme temperature and precipitation for the Mongolian Plateau from 1951 to 2012 were investigated on the basis of daily temperature and precipitation data from 70 meteorological stations. Changes in catastrophic events, such as droughts, floods, and snowstorms, were also investigated for the same period. The correlations between catastrophic events and the extreme indices were examined. The results show that the Mongolian Plateau experienced an asymmetric warming trend. Both the cold extremes and warm extremes showed greater warming at night than in the daytime. The spatial changes in significant trends showed a good homogeneity and consistency in Inner Mongolia. Changes in the precipitation extremes were not as obvious as those in the temperature extremes. The spatial distributions in changes of precipitation extremes were complex. A decreasing trend was shown for total precipitation from west to east as based on the spatial distribution of decadal trends. Drought was the most serious extreme disaster, and prolonged drought for longer than 3 yr occurred about every 7–11 yr. An increasing trend in the disaster area was apparent for flood events from 1951 to 2012. A decreasing trend was observed for the maximum depth of snowfall from 1951 to 2012, with a decreased average maximum depth of 10 mm from the 1990s.

Full access
Qiang Wang
,
Lili Zeng
,
Yeqiang Shu
,
Jian Li
,
Ju Chen
,
Yunkai He
,
Jinglong Yao
,
Dongxiao Wang
, and
Weidong Zhou

Abstract

Topographic Rossby waves (TRWs) are reported to make a significant contribution to the deep-ocean current variability. On the northern South China Sea (NSCS) continental slope, TRWs with peak spectral energy at ~14.5 days are observed over about a year at deep moorings aligned east–west around the Dongsha Islands. The TRWs with a group velocity of O(10) cm s−1 contribute more than 40% of total bottom velocity fluctuations at the two mooring stations. The energy propagation and source are further identified using a ray-tracing model. The TRW energy mainly propagates westward along the NSCS continental slope with a slight downslope component. The possible energy source is upper-ocean 10–20-day fluctuations on the east side of the Dongsha Islands, which are transferred through the first baroclinic mode (i.e., the second EOF mode). These 10–20-day fluctuations in the upper ocean are associated with mesoscale eddies. However, to the west of the Dongsha Islands, the 10–20-day fluctuations in the upper ocean are too weak to effectively generate TRWs locally. This work provides an interesting insight toward understanding the NSCS deep current variability and the linkage between the upper- and deep-ocean currents.

Full access
Lanqiang Bai
,
Zhiyong Meng
,
Ling Huang
,
Lijun Yan
,
Zhaohui Li
,
Xuehu Mai
,
Yipeng Huang
,
Dan Yao
, and
Xi Wang

Abstract

This work presents an integrated damage, visual, and radar analysis of a tropical cyclone (TC) tornado that has not been documented as detailed as midlatitude tornadoes. On 4 October 2015, an enhanced Fujita 3 (EF3) tornado spawned into Typhoon Mujigae and hit Foshan, Guangdong Province, China. This tornado was generated in a minisupercell ∼350 km northeast of the TC center and lasted about 32 minutes, leaving a southeast-to-northwest damage swath 30.85 km long and 20–570 m wide. Near-surface wind patterns and the size of the tornado, juxtaposition of the condensation funnel with the damage swath and radar signatures, and consistency between near-surface wind speed estimated from visual observations and that estimated using EF scale were revealed based on ground and aerial surveys, radar and surface observations, photographs, and tornado videos. Tornado videos showed two occurrences of vertical subvortices followed by the formation of a horizontal vortex. Some features of the tornado, the parent supercell and mesocyclone, and the convective environment were compared to their U.S. counterparts. This work provides a case review of a tornado with the most comprehensive information ever in China. Damage indicators used to estimate the tornado intensity in this Chinese case were compared with those in the United States, demonstrating the potential applicability of the EF scale in tornado damage surveys outside the United States.

Open access
Dong-Peng Guo
,
Peng Zhao
,
Ren-Tai Yao
,
Yun-Peng Li
,
Ji-Min Hu
, and
Dan Fan

Abstract

In this paper, the kε renormalization group (RNG) turbulence model is used to simulate the flow and dispersion of pollutants emitted from a source at the top of a cubic building under neutral and stable atmospheric stratifications, the results of which were compared with corresponding wind tunnel experiment results. When atmosphere stratification is stable, the separation zones on the sides and at the top of a building are relatively smaller than those under neutral conditions, and the effect of the building in the horizontal direction is stronger than that in the vertical direction. The variation in turbulent kinetic energy under stable conditions is significantly lower than that under neutral conditions. The effect of atmospheric stratification on the turbulent kinetic energy becomes gradually more prominent with increased distance. When atmosphere conditions are stable, the vertical distribution of the plume is smaller than that of neutral conditions, but the lateral spread and near-ground concentration are slightly larger than those of neutral conditions, mainly because stable atmospheric stratification suppresses the vertical motions of airflow and increases the horizontal spread of the plume.

Free access
He Sun
,
Tandong Yao
,
Fengge Su
,
Zhihua He
,
Guoqiang Tang
,
Ning Li
,
Bowen Zheng
,
Jingheng Huang
,
Fanchong Meng
,
Tinghai Ou
, and
Deliang Chen

Abstract

Precipitation is one of the most important atmospheric inputs to hydrological models. However, existing precipitation datasets for the Third Pole (TP) basins show large discrepancies in precipitation magnitudes and spatiotemporal patterns, which poses a great challenge to hydrological simulations in the TP basins. In this study, a gridded (10 km × 10 km) daily precipitation dataset is constructed through a random-forest-based machine learning algorithm (RF algorithm) correction of the ERA5 precipitation estimates based on 940 gauges in 11 upper basins of TP for 1951–2020. The dataset is evaluated by gauge observations at point scale and is inversely evaluated by the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model linked with a glacier melt algorithm (VIC-Glacier). The corrected ERA5 (ERA5_cor) agrees well with gauge observations after eliminating the severe overestimation in the original ERA5 precipitation. The corrections greatly reduce the original ERA5 precipitation estimates by 10%–50% in 11 basins of the TP and present more details on precipitation spatial variability. The inverse hydrological model evaluation demonstrates the accuracy and rationality, and we provide an updated estimate of runoff components contribution to total runoff in seven upper basins in the TP based on the VIC-Glacier model simulations with the ERA5_cor precipitation. This study provides good precipitation estimates with high spatiotemporal resolution for 11 upper basins in the TP, which are expected to facilitate the hydrological modeling and prediction studies in this high mountainous region.

Significance Statement

The Third Pole (TP) is the source of water to the people living in the areas downstream. Precipitation is the key driver of the terrestrial hydrological cycle and the most important atmospheric input to land surface hydrological models. However, none of the current precipitation data are equally good for all the TP basins because of high variabilities in their magnitudes and spatiotemporal patterns, posing a great challenge to the hydrological simulation. Therefore, in this study, a gridded daily precipitation dataset (10 km × 10 km) is reconstructed through a random-forest-based machine learning algorithm correction of ERA5 precipitation estimates based on 940 gauges in 11 TP basins for 1951–2020. The data eliminate the severe overestimation of original ERA5 precipitation estimates and present more reasonable spatial variability, and also exhibit a high potential for hydrological application in the TP basins. This study provides long-term precipitation data for climate and hydrological studies and a reference for deriving precipitation in high mountainous regions with complex terrain and limited observations.

Free access
Dongliang Yuan
,
Xiang Li
,
Zheng Wang
,
Yao Li
,
Jing Wang
,
Ya Yang
,
Xiaoyue Hu
,
Shuwen Tan
,
Hui Zhou
,
Adhitya Kusuma Wardana
,
Dewi Surinati
,
Adi Purwandana
,
Mochamad Furqon Azis Ismail
,
Praditya Avianto
,
Dirham Dirhamsyah
,
Zainal Arifin
, and
Jin-Song von Storch

Abstract

The Maluku Channel is a major opening of the eastern Indonesian Seas to the western Pacific Ocean, the upper-ocean currents of which have rarely been observed historically. During December 2012–November 2016, long time series of the upper Maluku Channel transport are measured successfully for the first time using subsurface oceanic moorings. The measurements show significant intraseasonal-to-interannual variability of over 14 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) in the upper 300 m or so, with a mean transport of 1.04–1.31 Sv northward and a significant southward interannual change of over 3.5 Sv in the spring of 2014. Coincident with the interannual transport change is the Mindanao Current, choked at the entrance of the Indonesian Seas, which is significantly different from its climatological retroflection in fall–winter. A high-resolution numerical simulation suggests that the variations of the Maluku Channel currents are associated with the shifting of the Mindanao Current retroflection. It is suggested that the shifting of the Mindanao Current outside the Sulawesi Sea in the spring of 2014 elevates the sea level at the entrance of the Indonesian Seas, which drives the anomalous transport through the Maluku Channel. The results suggest the importance of the western boundary current nonlinearity in driving the transport variability of the Indonesian Throughflow.

Full access