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Yi-Pin Chang
,
Shu-Chih Yang
,
Kuan-Jen Lin
,
Guo-Yuan Lien
, and
Chien-Ming Wu

Abstract

This study investigates the impact of tropical cyclone (TC) initialization methods on TC intensity prediction under a framework coupling the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with the TC Centered-Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (WRF TCC-LETKF). While the TC environments are constrained by assimilating the same environmental observations, two different initialization strategies, assimilating real dropsonde observations (the DP experiment) and synthetic axisymmetric surface wind structure (the VT experiment), are employed to construct the TC inner-core structure. These two experiments have distinct results on predicting the rapid intensification (RI) of Typhoon Megi (2010), which can be attributed to their different convective burst (CB) development. In DP, the assimilation of the dropsondes helps establish a realistic TC structure with asymmetry information, leading to scattered CB distribution and persistent RI with abundant moisture supply. In VT, assimilating the axisymmetric surface wind structure spins up the TC efficiently. However, the initially excessive CB coverage causes a too-early high-level warm core, and the reduced moisture supply hinders RI. The forecast results imply that if the TC structure is initialized using a scheme considering only the axisymmetric vortex structure, the RI potential can possibly be underestimated due to the inability to represent the realistic asymmetric structure. Finally, assimilation of both the real and synthetic data can be complementary, giving a strong TC initially that undergoes a longer RI period.

Open access
Jiaxin Ye
,
Chaoxia Yuan
,
Mengzhou Yang
,
Xinyu Lu
,
Jing-Jia Luo
, and
Toshio Yamagata

Abstract

Significant anomalies in frequency of summer extreme hot day (SEHD) are broadly observed in the Asian monsoon region (AMR) in the post-ENSO summers. The delayed ENSO impacts are mainly conveyed by provoking the Indo-western Pacific Ocean capacitor (IPOC) effect that maintains the anomalous anticyclone in the western North Pacific. The related diabatic heating anomaly can trigger the westward propagating Rossby wave to the Indian subcontinent, which increases the geopotential heights, reduces the cloud cover, and thus increases the seasonal surface temperature and SEHD frequency in the southern AMR. Besides, the reduced atmospheric moisture in the western North Pacific hinders the northward propagation of intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) and modulates the occurrence frequency of individual ISO phases, contributing to the significantly increased/decreased SEHDs in eastern China/Hokkaido of Japan in the post-El Niño summers.

The 25-model-ensemble mean of CMIP6 historical runs can reproduce well the observed SEHD anomalies in the southern AMR in the post-ENSO summers mainly due to the realistic simulation of ENSO impacts on the seasonal surface temperature, although a large inter-model spread exists due to different strength of IPOC effect in each model owing to model biases in the mean state of eastern tropical Pacific, the ENSO variance and teleconnection to the Indian Ocean. Furthermore, future projections under SSP5-8.5 scenario show that the delayed ENSO impacts on the southern AMR remains stable under global warming via the similar mechanism as in the observations and historical runs.

Restricted access
Peng Ji
,
Xing Yuan
,
Chunxiang Shi
,
Lipeng Jiang
,
Guoqing Wang
, and
Kun Yang

Abstract

With the improvement of meteorological forcings and surface parameters, high-resolution land surface modeling is expected to provide locally relevant information. Yet, its added value over the state-of-the-art global reanalysis products requires long-term evaluations over large areas, given uneven climate warming and significant land cover change. Here, the Conjunctive Surface–Subsurface Process version 2 (CSSPv2) model, with a reasonable representation of runoff generation, subgrid soil moisture variability and urban dynamics, is calibrated and used to perform a 6-km resolution simulation over China during 1979–2017. Evaluations against observations at thousands of stations and several satellite-based products show that the CSSPv2 has 67%, 29%, and 15% lower simulation errors for snow depth, evapotranspiration (ET), and surface and root-zone soil moisture, respectively, than nine global products. The median Kling–Gupta efficiency of the streamflow for 83 river basins is 0.66 after bulk calibrations, which is 0.38 higher than that of global datasets. The CSSPv2 also accurately simulates urban heat islands (UHIs) and the patterns and magnitudes of long-term snow depth, ET, and soil moisture trends. However, the global products do not detect UHIs and overestimate the trends (or show opposite trends) of snow depth and ET. Sensitivity experiments with coarse-resolution forcings and surface parameters reveal that advanced model physics and high-resolution surface parameters are vital for improved simulations of snow depth, ET, soil moisture, and UHIs, whereas high-resolution meteorological forcings are critical for modeling long-term trends. Our research emphasizes the substantial added value of long-term high-resolution land surface modeling to present global products at continental scales.

Significance Statement

Highly heterogeneous changes of terrestrial water and energy require kilometer-scale land surface information for the adaptation. High-resolution land surface modeling has been regarded as a promising approach to provide locally relevant information, but most applications are limited to a small region or a short period. By performing sets of 6-km resolution simulations over China during 1979–2017 with the Conjunctive Surface–Subsurface Process version 2 land model, here we show that high-resolution modeling has 15%–67% lower simulation errors of snow depth, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture than nine global products, and the improvement is mainly attributed to the advances in model physical parameterizations and high-resolution surface parameters. Our results emphasize the great added value of kilometer-scale land surface modeling at continental scales.

Restricted access
Xiaojiang Zhang
,
Xiaodong Huang
,
Yunchao Yang
,
Wei Zhao
,
Huizan Wang
,
Chunxin Yuan
, and
Jiwei Tian

Abstract

The high-resolution mooring observations reported here reveal a cascade process from internal solitary waves (ISWs) to turbulent mixing via high-frequency internal waves near the maximum local buoyancy frequency (near N-waves) in the deep water of the northern South China Sea (SCS). Riding on the parent ISW, near N-waves with a peak frequency of 20 cph emerged at the trough of the ISW and extended to the rear face of the ISW. Most of the near N-waves occurred around the thermocline, where the isothermal displacements induced by the near N-waves were largest with an amplitude of 12 m. The energy of near N-waves was 5% of that of the parent ISW, and instability investigations showed that due to the strong shear, Ri in the region of strong near N-waves was less than 1/4, suggesting that the near N-waves were instable and might dissipate rapidly. Simulations based on the KdV-Burgers equation reproduced the formation of observed near N-waves due to the energy cascade from ISWs. Our observational results demonstrate a new energy cascade route from ISWs to turbulence in the deep water, deepening the understanding of the energy dissipation process of ISWs and their roles in the enhanced mixing in the northern SCS.

Restricted access
Yanyi He
,
Kun Yang
,
Yanghang Ren
,
Mijun Zou
,
Xu Yuan
, and
Wenjun Tang

The 2021 low solar radiation over southeastern Tibetan Plateau was mainly caused by abnormally strong southerlies and was further enhanced by anthropogenic aerosols and GHGs-induced warming, and consequently reduced vegetation growth.

Free access
Yuan Yang
,
Ming Pan
,
Peirong Lin
,
Hylke E. Beck
,
Zhenzhong Zeng
,
Dai Yamazaki
,
Cédric H. David
,
Hui Lu
,
Kun Yang
,
Yang Hong
, and
Eric F. Wood

Abstract

Better understanding and quantification of river floods for very local and “flashy” events calls for modeling capability at fine spatial and temporal scales. However, long-term discharge records with a global coverage suitable for extreme events analysis are still lacking. Here, grounded on recent breakthroughs in global runoff hydrology, river modeling, high-resolution hydrography, and climate reanalysis, we developed a 3-hourly river discharge record globally for 2.94 million river reaches during the 40-yr period of 1980–2019. The underlying modeling chain consists of the VIC land surface model (0.05°, 3-hourly) that is well calibrated and bias corrected and the RAPID routing model (2.94 million river and catchment vectors), with precipitation input from MSWEP and other meteorological fields downscaled from ERA5. Flood events (above 2-yr return) and their characteristics (number, spatial distribution, and seasonality) were extracted and studied. Validations against 3-hourly flow records from 6,000+ gauges in CONUS and daily records from 14,000+ gauges globally show good modeling performance across all flow ranges, good skills in reconstructing flood events (high extremes), and the benefit of (and need for) subdaily modeling. This data record, referred as Global Reach-Level Flood Reanalysis (GRFR), is publicly available at https://www.reachhydro.org/home/records/grfr.

Full access
Ming Feng
,
Yongliang Duan
,
Susan Wijffels
,
Je-Yuan Hsu
,
Chao Li
,
Huiwu Wang
,
Yang Yang
,
Hong Shen
,
Jianjun Liu
,
Chunlin Ning
, and
Weidong Yu
Full access
Ming Feng
,
Yongliang Duan
,
Susan Wijffels
,
Je-Yuan Hsu
,
Chao Li
,
Huiwu Wang
,
Yang Yang
,
Hong Shen
,
Jianjun Liu
,
Chunlin Ning
, and
Weidong Yu

Abstract

Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) north of Australia in the Indonesian–Australian Basin are significantly influenced by Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), an eastward-moving atmospheric disturbance that traverses the globe in the tropics. The region also has large-amplitude diurnal SST variations, which may influence the air–sea heat and moisture fluxes, that provide feedback to the MJO evolution. During the 2018/19 austral summer, a field campaign aiming to better understand the influences of air–sea coupling on the MJO was conducted north of Australia in the Indonesian–Australian Basin. Surface meteorology from buoy observations and upper-ocean data from autonomous fast-profiling float observations were collected. Two MJO convective phases propagated eastward across the region in mid-December 2018 and late January 2019 and the second MJO was in conjunction with a tropical cyclone development. Observations showed that SST in the region was rather sensitive to the MJO forcing. Air–sea heat fluxes warmed the SST throughout the 2018/19 austral summer, punctuated by the MJO activities, with a 2°–3°C drop in SST during the two MJO events. Substantial diurnal SST variations during the suppressed phases of the MJOs were observed, and the near-surface thermal stratifications provided positive feedback for the peak diurnal SST amplitude, which may be a mechanism to influence the MJO evolution. Compared to traditionally vessel-based observation programs, we have relied on fast-profiling floats as the main vehicle in measuring the upper-ocean variability from diurnal to the MJO time scales, which may pave the way for using cost-effective technology in similar process studies.

Free access
Fanxiang Meng
,
Zongliang Wang
,
Qiang Fu
,
Tianxiao Li
,
Xu Yang
,
Ennan Zheng
,
Ge Zhang
,
Qing Zhuang
,
Qiyang Fu
, and
Yuan Zhang

Abstract

The evolution of the average freezing depth and maximum freezing depth of seasonal frozen soil and their correlations with the average winter half-year temperature in Heilongjiang Province in China are analyzed. Linear regression, the Mann–Kendall test, and kriging interpolation are applied to freezing depth data from 20 observation stations in Heilongjiang Province from 1972 to 2016 and daily average temperature data from 34 national meteorological stations collected in the winters of 1972–2020. The results show that the average freezing depth decreases at a rate of 4.8 cm (10 yr)−1 and that the maximum freezing depth decreases at a rate of 10.1 cm (10 yr)−1. The winter half-year average temperature generally shows a fluctuating upward trend in Heilongjiang Province, increasing at a rate of 0.3°C (10 yr)−1. The correlations between the average and maximum freezing depths and the winter half-year average temperature are −0.53 and −0.49, respectively. For every 1°C increase in the average temperature during the winter half of the year, the average freezing depth decreases by 3.85 cm and the maximum freezing depth decreases by 7.84 cm. The average freezing depth sequence mutated in 1987, and the maximum freezing depth sequence mutated in 1988. The average temperature in the winter half-year displayed multiple abrupt changes from 1972 to 2020. The spatial variations in the average and maximum freezing depths are basically consistent with those in the average winter half-year temperature. These research results provide a theoretical basis for the design and site selection of hydraulic structures in cold areas and for regional development and agricultural planning.

Significance Statement

The freeze–thaw balance in the frozen soil environment has been disrupted in recent years, and various degrees of degradation have occurred in the frozen soil. The degradation of frozen soil will further aggravate the greenhouse effect, which in turn will affect the accumulation of water in the soil and will have a significant impact on local agricultural production. This article uses Heilongjiang Province in China as an example. The results show that 1) the temperature in the winter half-year has exhibited an upward trend in recent years, 2) the temperature in the winter half-year has a considerable impact on the frozen soil environment, and 3) the response of the spatial distribution of frozen soil to temperature changes in the winter half-year is revealed.

Restricted access
Yi Liu
,
Ye Zhu
,
Liliang Ren
,
Jason Otkin
,
Eric D. Hunt
,
Xiaoli Yang
,
Fei Yuan
, and
Shanhu Jiang

Abstract

Flash droughts are extreme phenomena that have been identified using two different approaches. The first approach identifies these events based on unusually rapid intensification rates, whereas the second approach implicitly identifies short-term features. This latter approach classifies flash droughts into two types, namely, precipitation deficit and heat wave flash droughts (denoted as PDFD and HWFD). In this study, we evaluate these two approaches over the Yellow River basin (YRB) to determine which approach provides more accurate information about flash droughts and why. Based on the concept of intensification rate, a new quantitative flash drought identification method focused on soil moisture depletion during the onset–development phase is proposed. Its performance was evaluated by comparing the onset time and spatial dynamics of the identified flash droughts with PDFD and HWFD events identified using the second approach. The results show that the rapid-intensification approach is better able to capture the continuous evolution of a flash drought. Since the approach for identifying PDFD and HWFD events does not consider changes in soil moisture with time, it cannot ensure that the events exhibit rapid intensification, nor can it effectively capture flash droughts’ onset. Evaluation of the results showed that the chosen hydrometeorological variables and corresponding thresholds, particularly that of temperature, are the main reasons for the poor performance of the PDFD and HWFD identification approach. This study promotes a deeper understanding of flash droughts that is beneficial for drought monitoring, early warning, and mitigation.

Free access