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Bruce B. Hicks, Elena Novakovskaia, Ronald J. Dobosy, William R. Pendergrass III, and William J. Callahan

Abstract

Data from six urban areas in a nationwide network of sites within the surface roughness layer are examined. It is found that the average velocity variances in time, derived by averaging the conventional variances from a network of n stations, are nearly equal to the velocity variances in space, derived as the variances among the n average velocities. This similarity is modified during sunlit hours, when convection appears to elevate the former. The data show little dependence of the ratio of these two variances on wind speed. It is concluded that the average state of the surface roughness layer in urban and suburban areas like those considered here tends toward an approximate equality of these two measures of variance, much as has been observed elsewhere for the case of forests.

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Margaret A. LeMone, Robert L. Grossman, Richard L. Coulter, Marvin L. Wesley, Gerard E. Klazura, Gregory S. PouIos, William Blumen, Julie K. Lundquist, Richard H. Cuenca, Shaun F. Kelly, Edward A. Brandes, Steven P. Oncley, Robert T. McMillen, and Bruce B. Hicks

This paper describes the development of the Cooperative Atmosphere Surface Exchange Study (CASES), its synergism with the development of the Atmosphere Boundary Layer Experiments (ABLE) and related efforts, CASES field programs, some early results, and future plans and opportunities. CASES is a grassroots multidisciplinary effort to study the interaction of the lower atmosphere with the land surface, the subsurface, and vegetation over timescales ranging from nearly instantaneous to years. CASES scientists developed a consensus that observations should be taken in a watershed between 50 and 100 km across; practical considerations led to an approach combining long-term data collection with episodic intensive field campaigns addressing specific objectives that should always include improvement of the design of the long-term instrumentation. In 1997, long-term measurements were initiated in the Walnut River Watershed east of Wichita, Kansas. Argonne National Laboratory started setting up the ABLE array. The first of the long-term hydrological enhancements was installed starting in May by the Hydrologic Science Team of Oregon State University. CASES-97, the first episodic field effort, was held during April–June to study the role of surface processes in the diurnal variation of the boundary layer, to test radar precipitation algorithms, and to define relevant scaling for precipitation and soil properties. The second episodic experiment, CASES-99, was conducted during October 1999, and focused on the stable boundary layer. Enhancements to both the atmospheric and hydrological arrays continue. The data from and information regarding both the long-term and episodic experiments are available on the World Wide Web. Scientists are invited to use the data and to consider the Walnut River Watershed for future field programs.

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