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Siyan Dong
,
Ying Sun
,
Chao Li
,
Xuebin Zhang
,
Seung-Ki Min
, and
Yeon-Hee Kim

Abstract

While the IPCC Fifth Assessment Working Group I report assessed observed changes in extreme precipitation on the basis of both absolute and percentile-based extreme indices, human influence on extreme precipitation has rarely been evaluated on the basis of percentile-based extreme indices. Here we conduct a formal detection and attribution analysis on changes in four percentile-based precipitation extreme indices. The indices include annual precipitation totals from days with precipitation exceeding the 99th and 95th percentiles of wet-day precipitation in 1961–90 (R99p and R95p) and their contributions to annual total precipitation (R99pTOT and R95pTOT). We compare these indices from a set of newly compiled observations during 1951–2014 with simulations from models participating in phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). We show that most land areas with observations experienced increases in these extreme indices with global warming during the historical period 1951–2014. The new CMIP6 models are able to reproduce these overall increases, although with considerable over- or underestimations in some regions. An optimal fingerprinting analysis reveals detectable anthropogenic signals in the observations of these indices averaged over the globe and over most continents. Furthermore, signals of greenhouse gases can be separately detected, taking other forcing into account, over the globe and over Asia in these indices except for R95p. In contrast, signals of anthropogenic aerosols and natural forcings cannot be detected in any of these indices at either global or continental scales.

Open access
Zhiyu Li
,
Wenjun Zhang
,
Malte F. Stuecker
,
Haiming Xu
,
Fei-Fei Jin
, and
Chao Liu

Abstract

The present work investigates different responses of Arctic surface air temperature (SAT) to two ENSO types based on reanalysis datasets and model experiments. We find that eastern Pacific (EP) ENSO events are accompanied by statistically significant SAT responses over the Barents–Kara Seas in February, while central Pacific (CP) events coincide with statistically significant SAT responses over northeastern Canada and Greenland. These impacts are largely of opposite sign for ENSO warm and cold phases. During EP El Niño in February, the enhanced tropospheric polar vortex over Eurasia and associated local low-level northeasterly anomalies over the Barents–Kara Seas lead to anomalously cold SAT in this region. Simultaneously, the enhanced tropospheric polar vortex leads to enhanced sinking air motion and consequently reduced cloud cover. This in turn reduces downward infrared radiation (IR), which further reduces SAT in the Barents–Kara Seas region. Such a robust response cannot be detected during other winter months for EP ENSO events. During CP El Niño, the February SATs over northeastern Canada and Greenland are anomalously warm and coincide with a weakened tropospheric polar vortex and related local low-level southwesterly anomalies originating from the Atlantic Ocean. The anomalous warmth can be enhanced by the local positive feedback. Similar SAT signals as in February during CP ENSO events can also be seen in January, but they are less statistically robust. We demonstrate that these contrasting Arctic February SAT responses are consistent with responses to the two ENSO types with a series of atmospheric general circulation model experiments. These results have implications for the seasonal predictability of regional Arctic SAT anomalies.

Full access
George Maier
,
Andrew Grundstein
,
Woncheol Jang
,
Chao Li
,
Luke P. Naeher
, and
Marshall Shepherd

Abstract

Extreme heat is the leading weather-related killer in the United States. Vulnerability to extreme heat has previously been identified and mapped in urban areas to improve heat morbidity and mortality prevention efforts. However, only limited work has examined vulnerability outside of urban locations. This study seeks to broaden the geographic context of earlier work and compute heat vulnerability across the state of Georgia, which offers diverse landscapes and populations with varying sociodemographic characteristics. Here, a modified heat vulnerability index (HVI) developed by Reid et al. is used to characterize vulnerability by county. About half of counties with the greatest heat vulnerability index scores contain the larger cities in the state (i.e., Athens, Atlanta, Augusta, Columbus, Macon, and Savannah), while the other half of high-vulnerability counties are located in more rural counties clustered in southwestern and east-central Georgia. The source of vulnerability varied between the more urban and rural high-vulnerability counties, with poverty and population of nonwhite residents driving vulnerability in the more urban counties and social isolation/population of elderly/poor health the dominant factor in the more rural counties. Additionally, the effectiveness of the HVI in identifying vulnerable populations was investigated by examining the effect of modification of the vulnerability index score with mortality during extreme heat. Except for the least vulnerable categories, the relative risk of mortality increases with increasing vulnerability. For the highest-vulnerability counties, oppressively hot days lead to a 7.7% increase in mortality.

Full access
Xianxin Li
,
Zhangjun Wang
,
Libin Du
,
Xingtao Liu
,
Xiufen Wang
,
Chao Chen
,
Xiangqian Meng
,
Hui Li
,
Quanfeng Zhuang
,
Wei Deng
,
Xin Pan
, and
Xinzhao Chu

Abstract

Observations of the atmospheric trace gases are crucial for quality assessment of the human living environment. Multiaxis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) is the most promising candidate to meet the requirements on observations of atmospheric trace gases with high sensitivity, good stability, and a wide range of regional monitoring. The shipborne observations of tropospheric trace gases (NO2, SO2, and O3) over a coastal city, Qingdao, with MAX-DOAS were conducted by a Chinese oceanographic research vessel, XiangYangHong 08 (XYH 08). During the observational campaign, the shipborne MAX-DOAS equipment was used to make anchor measurements for 3 days, and a sailing measurement along Qingdao coast for half an hour. Measurement results are presented for both sailing and anchor point measurements in this paper. Combining geometry characteristic of the monitoring area, it can be concluded from the sailing measurements that the traffic emissions may play an important role in the boundary layer (BL) pollution of a coastal city’s atmosphere. The anchor point measurements showed that the NO2 vertical column density (VCD) mean value of Jiaozhou Bay is about 2.7 times of the value of the Qingdao offshore sea area. Likewise, the tropospheric VCDs of SO2 and O3 have an increase of 30% and 40%, respectively, on 1 September in Jiaozhou Bay, compared to the other 2 days in Qingdao offshore sea area.

Free access
Zhenchao Wang
,
Lin Han
,
Jiayu Zheng
,
Ruiqiang Ding
,
Jianping Li
,
Zhaolu Hou
, and
Jinghua Chao

Abstract

The Victoria mode (VM) is the second dominant sea surface temperature mode in the North Pacific, forced by North Pacific Oscillation–like extratropical atmospheric variability. Observational studies have shown that the boreal spring VM is closely connected to the following winter El Niño, with the VM efficiently acting as a precursor signal to El Niño events. This study evaluates the relationship of the spring VM with subsequent winter El Niño in the preindustrial simulations of phases 5 and 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5 and CMIP6). We found that most CMIP5 and CMIP6 models can simulate the basic characteristics of the VM reasonably well. The current CMIP6 models simulate the VM–El Niño connections more realistically as compared to the earlier CMIP5 models. The analysis further suggests that the improved capability of the CMIP6 models to simulate the VM–El Niño relationship is because the CMIP6 models are better able to capture the VM-related surface air–sea thermodynamic coupling process over the subtropical/tropical Pacific and the seasonal evolution of VM-related anomalous subsurface ocean temperature in the equatorial Pacific.

Full access
Shi-Xin Wang
,
Hong-Chao Zuo
,
Fen Sun
,
Li-Yang Wu
,
Yixing Yin
, and
Jing-Jia Luo

Abstract

Dynamics of the East Asian spring rainband are investigated with a reanalysis dataset and station observations. Here, it is revealed that the rainband is anchored by external forcings. The midtropospheric jet core stays quasi-stationary around Japan. It has two branches in its entry region, which originate from the south and north flanks of the Tibetan Plateau and then run northeastward and southeastward, respectively. The southern branch advects warm air from the Tibetan–Hengduan Plateau northeastward, forming a rainband over southern China through causing adiabatic ascent motion and triggering diabatic feedback. The rainband is much stronger in spring than in autumn due to the stronger diabatic heating over the Tibetan–Hengduan Plateau, a more southward-displaced midtropospheric jet, and the resulting stronger warm advection over southern China. The northern jet branch forms a zonally elongated cold advection belt, which reaches a maximum around northern China, and then weakens and extends eastward to east of Japan. The westerly jet also steers strong disturbance activities roughly collocated with the cold advection belt via baroclinic instability. The high disturbance activities belt causes large cumulative warm advection (CWA) through drastically increasing extremely warm advection days on its eastern and south flanks, where weak cold advection prevails. CWA is more essential for monthly/seasonally rainfall than conventionally used time-average temperature advection because it is shown that strengthened warm advection can increase rainfall through positive diabatic feedback, while cold advection cannot cause negative rainfall. Thus, the rainband is collocated with the large CWA belt instead of the warm advection south of it. This rainband is jointed to the rainband over southern China, forming the long southwest–northeast-oriented East Asian spring rainband. Increasing moisture slightly displaces the rainband southeastward.

Full access
Ming Feng
,
Yongliang Duan
,
Susan Wijffels
,
Je-Yuan Hsu
,
Chao Li
,
Huiwu Wang
,
Yang Yang
,
Hong Shen
,
Jianjun Liu
,
Chunlin Ning
, and
Weidong Yu

Abstract

Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) north of Australia in the Indonesian–Australian Basin are significantly influenced by Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), an eastward-moving atmospheric disturbance that traverses the globe in the tropics. The region also has large-amplitude diurnal SST variations, which may influence the air–sea heat and moisture fluxes, that provide feedback to the MJO evolution. During the 2018/19 austral summer, a field campaign aiming to better understand the influences of air–sea coupling on the MJO was conducted north of Australia in the Indonesian–Australian Basin. Surface meteorology from buoy observations and upper-ocean data from autonomous fast-profiling float observations were collected. Two MJO convective phases propagated eastward across the region in mid-December 2018 and late January 2019 and the second MJO was in conjunction with a tropical cyclone development. Observations showed that SST in the region was rather sensitive to the MJO forcing. Air–sea heat fluxes warmed the SST throughout the 2018/19 austral summer, punctuated by the MJO activities, with a 2°–3°C drop in SST during the two MJO events. Substantial diurnal SST variations during the suppressed phases of the MJOs were observed, and the near-surface thermal stratifications provided positive feedback for the peak diurnal SST amplitude, which may be a mechanism to influence the MJO evolution. Compared to traditionally vessel-based observation programs, we have relied on fast-profiling floats as the main vehicle in measuring the upper-ocean variability from diurnal to the MJO time scales, which may pave the way for using cost-effective technology in similar process studies.

Free access
Zhuoqi He
,
Weiqiang Wang
,
Renguang Wu
,
In-Sik Kang
,
Chao He
,
Xiuzhen Li
,
Kang Xu
, and
Sheng Chen

Abstract

This study is the second part of a two-part series investigating a recent decadal modulation of interannual variability over the western Pacific Ocean around the early 2000s. Observational evidence shows that the anomalous Philippine Sea cyclonic circulation retreats eastward, with the western Pacific rainfall anomaly distribution changing from a north–south tripole pattern to an east–west dipole pattern after 2003–04. These changes are attributed to a change in El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) properties and the associated Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly pattern. Before the early 2000s, slow-decaying ENSO events induce large SST anomalies in the northern Indian Ocean during the following summer. The northern Indian Ocean SST anomalies act together with the opposite-sign SST anomalies in the tropical central Pacific, leading to a zonally extended anomalous lower-level cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation and an elongated rainfall anomaly band over the western Pacific. After the early 2000s, ENSO events have a shortened period and a weakened amplitude, and the eastern Pacific SST anomalies tend to undergo a phase transition from winter to summer. Consequently, the influence of ENSO on the Indian Ocean SST anomalies is weakened and the contribution of the northern Indian Ocean SST anomalies to the western Pacific summer rainfall variability becomes insignificant. In this case, the western North Pacific summer rainfall is mainly dominated by the well-developed tropical Pacific SST forcing following the early decay of ENSO events. The potential physical mechanism for the two types of ENSO influences is validated with regional decoupled Community Earth System Model experiments.

Free access
Ming Feng
,
Yongliang Duan
,
Susan Wijffels
,
Je-Yuan Hsu
,
Chao Li
,
Huiwu Wang
,
Yang Yang
,
Hong Shen
,
Jianjun Liu
,
Chunlin Ning
, and
Weidong Yu
Full access
Xuefeng Zhang
,
Peter C. Chu
,
Wei Li
,
Chang Liu
,
Lianxin Zhang
,
Caixia Shao
,
Xiaoshuang Zhang
,
Guofang Chao
, and
Yuxin Zhao

Abstract

Langmuir turbulence (LT) due to the Craik–Leibovich vortex force had a clear impact on the thermal response of the ocean mixed layer to Supertyphoon Haitang (2005) east of the Luzon Strait. This impact is investigated using a 3D wave–current coupled framework consisting of the Princeton Ocean Model with the generalized coordinate system (POMgcs) and the Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) wave model. The Coriolis–Stokes forcing (CSF), the Craik–Leibovich vortex forcing (CLVF), and the second-moment closure model of LT developed by Harcourt are introduced into the circulation model. The coupled system is able to reproduce the upper-ocean temperature and surface mixed layer depth reasonably well during the forced stage of the supertyphoon. The typhoon-induced “cold suction” and “heat pump” processes are significantly affected by LT. Local LT mixing strengthened the sea surface cooling by more than 0.5°C in most typhoon-affected regions. Besides LT, Lagrangian advection of temperature also modulates the SST cooling, inducing a negative (positive) SST difference in the vicinity of the typhoon center (outside of the cooling region). In addition, CLVF has the same order of magnitude as the horizontal advection in the typhoon-induced strong-vorticity region. While the geostrophy is broken down during the forced stage of Haitang, CLVF can help establish and maintain typhoon-induced quasigeostrophy during and after the typhoon. Finally, the effect of LT on the countergradient turbulent flux under the supertyphoon is discussed.

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