Search Results

You are looking at 31 - 40 of 44 items for

  • Author or Editor: Huang-Hsiung Hsu x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Guoxing Chen
,
Wei-Chyung Wang
,
Chao-Tzuen Cheng
, and
Huang-Hsiung Hsu

Abstract

Winter extreme snowstorm events along the coast of the northeast United States have significant impacts on social and economic activities, and their potential changes under global warming are of great concern. Here, we adopted the pseudo–global warming approach to investigate the responses of 93 events identified in our previous observational analysis. The study was conducted by contrasting two sets of WRF simulations for each event: the first set driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis and the second set by that data superimposed with mean-climate changes simulated from HiRAM historical (1980–2004) and future (2075–99; RCP8.5) runs. Results reveal that the warming together with increased moisture tends to decrease the snowfall along the coast but increase the rainfall throughout the region. For example, the number of events having daily snow water equivalent larger than 10 mm day−1 at Boston, Massachusetts; New York City, New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Washington, D.C., is decreased by 47%, 46%, 30%, and 33%, respectively. The compensating changes in snowfall and rainfall lead to a total-precipitation increase in the three more-southern cities but a decrease in Boston. In addition, the southwestward shift of regional precipitation distribution is coherent with the enhancement (reduction) of upward vertical motion in the south (north) and the movement of cyclone centers (westward in 58% of events and southward in 72%). Finally, perhaps more adversely, because of the northward retreat of the 0°C line and the expansion of the near-freezing zone, the number of events with mixed rain and snow and freezing precipitation in the north (especially the inland area) is increased.

Full access
Chi-Cherng Hong
,
Wang-Ling Tseng
,
Huang-Hsiung Hsu
,
Ming-Ying Lee
, and
Chi-Chun Chang

Abstract

The northern extratropics—including regions in northern Europe, northeast Asia, and North America—experienced extremely prolonged heat waves during May–August 2018. Record-breaking surface temperatures, which caused numerous deaths, were observed in several cities. The 2018 heat waves exhibited a circumglobal characteristic owing to a circumpolar perturbation (CCP) in the middle–upper troposphere of the Northern Hemisphere (NH). The CCP had two parts: a wavelike perturbation and a hemispheric perturbation that was almost zonally symmetric. Singular-value decomposition analysis revealed that the zonally symmetric perturbation was coupled to the SST warming trend, whereas the wavelike perturbation was primarily coupled to the interannually varying SST anomaly (SSTA), particularly in the tropical North Pacific, which reached an extreme in 2018. Numerical experiments confirmed that the zonally symmetric component primarily resulted from the SSTA associated with the warming trend, whereas the interannually varying SSTAs in the NH contributed mostly to the wavelike perturbation. The warming trend component of SSTA, especially that in the tropics, compounded by the unusually large SSTAs in 2018, was hypothesized to have contributed to inducing the circumpolar circulation anomaly that caused the record-breaking heat waves in the extratropical NH in 2018.

Full access
Lexi Henny
,
Chris D. Thorncroft
,
Huang-Hsiung Hsu
, and
Lance F. Bosart

Abstract

Taiwan regularly experiences precipitation extremes of hundreds of millimeters per day, especially between May and September. In this study, Taiwan’s extreme rainfall (ER) is analyzed over a 56-yr time period in different seasons and geographic regions, using a recently released, high-resolution gridded rainfall dataset. ER is defined using a seasonally and geographically varying 99th-percentile threshold to better resolve the characteristics of the most intense rainfall seen in different locations and times of year. The resulting monthly ER rates are largest in typhoon season and smallest in fall, winter, and spring. ER is spatially homogeneous in the mei-yu and typhoon seasons and concentrated in northern Taiwan during the rest of the year. A trend analysis revealed a positive trend in island-mean ER for the winter, spring, and typhoon seasons. In winter and spring, these trends are most pronounced in the north. In the mei-yu season, ER has increased most over the southwestern mountain slopes; in typhoon season, ER has increased consistently over much of Taiwan. These changes often exceed 1% yr−1. In many areas, typhoon season accounts for the largest fraction of the observed annual ER trend. TCs produce most of the observed typhoon season ER and ER trend, with nearly half of the typhoon season ER trend being associated with increases in TC frequency and duration around central and northern Taiwan. Certain regional changes in ER characteristics, particularly in areas with low sample size or complex seasonal contributions, merit further investigation in future work.

Full access
Chi-Cherng Hong
,
Ming-Ying Lee
,
Huang-Hsiung Hsu
, and
Wan-Ling Tseng

Abstract

This study reports the different effects of tropical and subtropical sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) on the mean tropical cyclone (TC) genesis location in the western North Pacific (WNP), a TC–SSTA relationship that has been largely ignored. In the Pacific, the interannual variability of the tropical SSTA in the boreal summer is characterized by an El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-like pattern, whereas the subtropical SSTA exhibits a Pacific meridional mode (PMM)-like structure. Partial correlation analysis reveals that the ENSO-like and PMM-like SSTAs dominate the south–north and east–west shift of mean TC genesis location, respectively. The 2015/16 El Niño was a strong event comparable with the 1997/98 event in terms of Niño-3.4 SSTA. However, the mean TC genesis location in the WNP during the summer of 2015 exhibited an unprecedented eastward shift by approximately 10 longitudinal degrees relative to that in 1997. Whereas the ENSO-like SSTAs in 1997 and 2015 were approximately equal, the amplitude of the PMM-like SSTA in 2015 was approximately twice as large as that in 1997. Numerical experiments forced by the ENSO-like and PMM-like SSTAs in June–August 2015 reveal that the positive PMM-like SSTA forces an east–west overturning circulation anomaly in the subtropical North Pacific with anomalously ascending (descending) motion in the subtropical central (western) Pacific. The mean TC genesis location in the WNP therefore shifts eastward when warmer SST occurs in the subtropical eastern Pacific. This finding supports the hypothesis that the extremely positive PMM-like SSTA in the summer of 2015 caused the unprecedented eastward shift of the TC genesis location in the WNP.

Full access
Chia-Chi Wang
,
Wei-Liang Lee
,
Yu-Luen Chen
, and
Huang-Hsiung Hsu

Abstract

The double intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) bias in the eastern Pacific in the Community Earth System Model version 1 with Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CESM1/CAM5) is diagnosed. In CAM5 standalone, the northern ITCZ is associated with inertial instability and the southern ITCZ is thermally forced. After air–sea coupling, the processes on both hemispheres are switched because the spatial pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) is changed.

Biases occur during boreal spring in both CAM5 and the ocean model. In CAM5 alone, weaker-than-observed equatorial easterly in the tropical eastern South Pacific leads to weaker evaporation and an increase in local SST. The shallow meridional circulation overly converges in the same region in the CAM5 standalone simulation, the planetary boundary layer and middle troposphere are too humid, and the large-scale subsidence is too weak at the middle levels. These biases may result from excessive shallow convection behavior in CAM5. The extra moisture would then fuel stronger convection and a higher precipitation rate in the southeastern Pacific.

In the ocean model, the South Equatorial Current is underestimated and the North Equatorial Countercurrent is located too close to the equator, causing a warm SST bias in the southeastern Pacific and a cold bias in the northeastern Pacific. These SST biases feed back to the atmosphere and further influence convection and the surface wind biases in the coupled simulation. When the convection in the tropical northeastern Pacific becomes thermally forced after coupling, the northern ITCZ is diminished due to colder SST, forming the so-called alternating ITCZ bias.

Full access
Yi-Xian Li
,
J. David Neelin
,
Yi-Hung Kuo
,
Huang-Hsiung Hsu
, and
Jia-Yuh Yu

Abstract

In convective quasi-equilibrium theory, tropical tropospheric temperature perturbations are expected to follow vertical profiles constrained by convection, referred to as A-profiles here, often approximated by perturbations of moist adiabats. Differences between an idealized A-profile based on moist-static energy conservation and temperature perturbations derived from entraining and nonentraining parcel computations are modest under convective conditions—deep convection mostly occurs when the lower troposphere is close to saturation, thus minimizing the impact of entrainment on tropospheric temperature. Simple calculations with pseudoadiabatic perturbations about the observed profile thus provide useful baseline A-profiles. The first EOF mode of tropospheric temperature (TEOF1) from the ERA-Interim and AIRS retrievals below the level of neutral buoyancy (LNB) is compared with these A-profiles. The TEOF1 profiles with high LNB, typically above 400 hPa, yield high vertical spatial correlation (∼0.9) with A-profiles, indicating that tropospheric temperature perturbations tend to be consistent with the quasi-equilibrium assumption where the environment is favorable to deep convection. Lower correlation tends to occur in regions with low climatological LNB, less favorable to deep convection. Excluding temperature profiles with low LNB significantly increases the tropical mean vertical spatial correlation. The temperature perturbations near LNB exhibit negative deviations from the A-profiles—the convective cold-top phenomenon—with greater deviation for higher LNB. In regions with lower correlation, the deviation from A-profile shows an S-like shape beneath 600 hPa, usually accompanied by a drier lower troposphere. These findings are robust across a wide range of time scales from daily to monthly, although the vertical spatial correlation and TEOF1 explained variance tend to decrease on short time scales.

Open access
Huang-Hsiung Hsu
,
Ching-Hui Hung
,
An-Kai Lo
,
Chun-Chieh Wu
, and
Chih-Wen Hung

Abstract

By estimating the differences between the original and tropical cyclone (TC)-removed fields derived from the 40-yr (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) and NCEP–NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis, this study reveals that TCs contribute significantly (exceeding 50% in certain regions) to the seasonal mean and the intraseasonal and interannual variance of the 850-hPa vorticity along the TC tracks in the tropical western North Pacific. Similar effects on the precipitation are also seen, as presented by the examples located in Taiwan. While the low-frequency, large-scale circulation produces a clustering effect on TCs, the latter, which has a large positive vorticity and tends to occur in the positive vorticity background flow, significantly enhances the strength of the positive vorticity. The contribution from TCs, which is not offset by the synoptic systems with weak negative vorticity, can therefore leave marked footprints in the climate signal and variability. This effect is not removed by long-term averaging and low-pass filtering, which are often used to retrieve the climate perturbations. This study reveals that the climate variability, as it is defined, is not contributed to merely by the low-frequency large-scale fluctuations. Instead, the TC effect has to be taken into account to understand the climate variability in the tropical western North Pacific. Subsequently, the ensemble effect of TCs, at least in the statistical sense, has to be resolved in the climate model to obtain a better simulation of the climate variability in the TC-prone region, such as the tropical western North Pacific.

Full access
Shu-Jeng Lin
,
Huang-Hsiung Hsu
,
Chia-Ying Tu
, and
Cheng-Hsiang Chih

Abstract

We evaluated the ability of the fvGFS with a 13-km resolution in simulating tropical cyclone genesis (TCG) by conducting hindcast experiments for 42 TCG events over 2018–19 in the western North Pacific (WNP). We observed an improved hit rate with a lead time of between 5 and 4 days; however, from 4- to 3-day lead time, no consistent improvement in the temporal and spatial errors of TCG was obtained. More “Fail” cases occurred when and where a low-level easterly background flow prevailed: from mid-August to September 2018 and after October 2019 and mainly in the eastern WNP. In “Hit” cases, 850-hPa streamfunction and divergence, 200-hPa divergence, and genesis potential index (GPI) provided favorable TCG conditions. However, the Hit–Fail case differences in other suggested factors (vertical wind shear, 700-hPa moisture, and SST) were nonsignificant. By contrast, the reanalysis used for validation showed only significant difference in 850-hPa streamfunction. We stratified the background flow of TCG into four types. The monsoon trough type (82%) provided the most favorable environmental conditions for successful hindcasts, followed by the subtropical high (45%), easterly (17%), and others (0%) types. These results indicated that fvGFS is more capable of enhancing monsoon trough circulation and provides a much better environment for TCG development but is less skillful in other types of background flow that provides weaker large-scale forcing. The results suggest that the most advanced high-resolution weather forecast models such as the fvGFS warrant further improvement to properly simulate the subtle circulation features (e.g., mesoscale convection system) that might provide seeds for TCG.

Significance Statement

This study provides an evaluation of tropical cyclone genesis prediction skill of fvGFS. Favorable large-scale environmental factors for successful prediction are identified. Skill dependence on environmental factors provides guidance for evaluating the reliability of a genesis forecast in advance.

Restricted access
Chi-Cherng Hong
,
Chih-Hua Tsou
,
Pang-Chi Hsu
,
Kuan-Chieh Chen
,
Hsin-Chien Liang
,
Huang-Hsiung Hsu
,
Chia-Ying Tu
, and
Akio Kitoh

Abstract

The future changes in tropical cyclone (TC) intensity and frequency over the western North Pacific (WNP) under global warming remain uncertain. In this study, we investigated such changes using 20-km resolution HiRAM and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) models, which can realistically simulate the TC activity in the present climate. We found that the mean intensity of TCs in the future (2075–99) would increase by approximately 15%, along with an eastward shift of TC genesis location in response to the El Niño–like warming. However, the lifetime of future TCs would be shortened because the TCs tend to have more poleward genesis locations and move faster due to a stronger steering flow related to the strengthened WNP subtropical high in a warmer climate. In other words, the enhancement of TC intensity in the future is not attributable to the duration of TC lifetime. To understand the processes responsible for the change in TC intensity in a warmer climate, we applied the budget equation of synoptic-scale eddy kinetic energy along the TC tracks in model simulations. The diagnostic results suggested that both the upper-level baroclinic energy conversion (CE) and lower-level barotropic energy conversion (CK) contribute to the intensified TCs under global warming. The increased CE results from the enhancement of TC-related perturbations of temperature and vertical velocity over the subtropical WNP, whereas the increased CK mainly comes from synoptic-scale eddies interacting with enhanced zonal-wind convergence associated with seasonal-mean and intraseasonal flows over Southeast China and the northwestern sector of WNP.

Full access
Guoxing Chen
,
Wei-Chyung Wang
,
Lijun Tao
,
Huang-Hsiung Hsu
,
Chia-Ying Tu
, and
Chao-Tzuen Cheng

Abstract

This study used both observations and global climate model simulations to investigate the characteristics of winter extreme snowfall events along the coast (the Interstate 95 corridor) of the northeast United States where several mega-cities are located. Observational analyses indicate that, during 1980–2015, 110 events occurred when four coastal cities—Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.—had either individually or collectively experienced daily snowfall exceeding the local 95th percentile thresholds. Boston had the most events, with a total of 69, followed by 40, 36, and 30 (moving southward) in the other three cities. The associated circulations at 200 and 850 hPa were categorized via K-means clustering. The resulting three composite circulations are characterized by the strength and location of the jet at 200 hPa and the coupled low pressure system at 850 hPa: a strong jet overlying the cities coupled with an inland trough, a weak and slightly southward shifted jet coupled with a cyclone at the coast, and a weak jet stream situated to the south of the cities coupled with a cyclone over the coastal oceans. Comparative analyses were also conducted using the GFDL High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) simulation of the same period. Although the simulated extreme events do not provide one-to-one correspondence with observations, the characteristics nevertheless show consistency notably in total number of occurrences, intraseasonal and multiple-year variations, snow spatial coverage, and the associated circulation patterns. Possible future change in extreme snow events was also explored utilizing the HiRAM RCP8.5 (2075–2100) simulation. The analyses suggest that a warming global climate tends to decrease the extreme snowfall events but increase extreme rainfall events.

Full access