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H. J. S. Fernando
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E. R. Pardyjak
,
S. Di Sabatino
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F. K. Chow
,
S. F. J. De Wekker
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S. W. Hoch
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J. Hacker
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J. C. Pace
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T. Pratt
,
Z. Pu
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W. J. Steenburgh
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C. D. Whiteman
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Y. Wang
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D. Zajic
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B. Balsley
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R. Dimitrova
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G. D. Emmitt
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C. W. Higgins
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J. C. R. Hunt
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J. C. Knievel
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D. Lawrence
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Y. Liu
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D. F. Nadeau
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E. Kit
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B. W. Blomquist
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P. Conry
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R. S. Coppersmith
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E. Creegan
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M. Felton
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A. Grachev
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N. Gunawardena
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C. Hang
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C. M. Hocut
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G. Huynh
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M. E. Jeglum
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D. Jensen
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V. Kulandaivelu
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M. Lehner
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L. S. Leo
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D. Liberzon
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J. D. Massey
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K. McEnerney
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S. Pal
,
T. Price
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M. Sghiatti
,
Z. Silver
,
M. Thompson
,
H. Zhang
, and
T. Zsedrovits

Abstract

Emerging application areas such as air pollution in megacities, wind energy, urban security, and operation of unmanned aerial vehicles have intensified scientific and societal interest in mountain meteorology. To address scientific needs and help improve the prediction of mountain weather, the U.S. Department of Defense has funded a research effort—the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program—that draws the expertise of a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional, and multinational group of researchers. The program has four principal thrusts, encompassing modeling, experimental, technology, and parameterization components, directed at diagnosing model deficiencies and critical knowledge gaps, conducting experimental studies, and developing tools for model improvements. The access to the Granite Mountain Atmospheric Sciences Testbed of the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, as well as to a suite of conventional and novel high-end airborne and surface measurement platforms, has provided an unprecedented opportunity to investigate phenomena of time scales from a few seconds to a few days, covering spatial extents of tens of kilometers down to millimeters. This article provides an overview of the MATERHORN and a glimpse at its initial findings. Orographic forcing creates a multitude of time-dependent submesoscale phenomena that contribute to the variability of mountain weather at mesoscale. The nexus of predictions by mesoscale model ensembles and observations are described, identifying opportunities for further improvements in mountain weather forecasting.

Full access
Gregory C. Johnson
,
Rick Lumpkin
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Simone R. Alin
,
Dillon J. Amaya
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Molly O. Baringer
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Tim Boyer
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Peter Brandt
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Brendan R. Carter
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Ivona Cetinić
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Don P. Chambers
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Lijing Cheng
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Andrew U. Collins
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Cathy Cosca
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Ricardo Domingues
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Shenfu Dong
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Richard A. Feely
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Eleanor Frajka-Williams
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Bryan A. Franz
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John Gilson
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Gustavo Goni
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Benjamin D. Hamlington
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Josefine Herrford
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Zeng-Zhen Hu
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Boyin Huang
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Masayoshi Ishii
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Svetlana Jevrejeva
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John J. Kennedy
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Marion Kersalé
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Rachel E. Killick
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Peter Landschützer
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Matthias Lankhorst
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Eric Leuliette
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Ricardo Locarnini
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John M. Lyman
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John J. Marra
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Christopher S. Meinen
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Mark A. Merrifield
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Gary T. Mitchum
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Ben I. Moat
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R. Steven Nerem
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Renellys C. Perez
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Sarah G. Purkey
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James Reagan
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Alejandra Sanchez-Franks
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Hillary A. Scannell
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Claudia Schmid
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Joel P. Scott
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David A. Siegel
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David A. Smeed
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Paul W. Stackhouse
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William Sweet
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Philip R. Thompson
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Joaquin A. Triñanes
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Denis L. Volkov
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Rik Wanninkhof
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Robert A. Weller
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Caihong Wen
,
Toby K. Westberry
,
Matthew J. Widlansky
,
Anne C. Wilber
,
Lisan Yu
, and
Huai-Min Zhang
Free access
Gregory C. Johnson
,
Rick Lumpkin
,
Tim Boyer
,
Francis Bringas
,
Ivona Cetinić
,
Don P. Chambers
,
Lijing Cheng
,
Shenfu Dong
,
Richard A. Feely
,
Baylor Fox-Kemper
,
Eleanor Frajka-Williams
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Bryan A. Franz
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Yao Fu
,
Meng Gao
,
Jay Garg
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John Gilson
,
Gustavo Goni
,
Benjamin D. Hamlington
,
Helene T. Hewitt
,
William R. Hobbs
,
Zeng-Zhen Hu
,
Boyin Huang
,
Svetlana Jevrejeva
,
William E. Johns
,
Sato Katsunari
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John J. Kennedy
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Marion Kersalé
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Rachel E. Killick
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Eric Leuliette
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Ricardo Locarnini
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M. Susan Lozier
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John M. Lyman
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Mark A. Merrifield
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Alexey Mishonov
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Gary T. Mitchum
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Ben I. Moat
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R. Steven Nerem
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Dirk Notz
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Renellys C. Perez
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Sarah G. Purkey
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Darren Rayner
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James Reagan
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Claudia Schmid
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David A. Siegel
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David A. Smeed
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Paul W. Stackhouse
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William Sweet
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Philip R. Thompson
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Denis L. Volkov
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Rik Wanninkhof
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Robert A. Weller
,
Caihong Wen
,
Toby K. Westberry
,
Matthew J. Widlansky
,
Josh K. Willis
,
Lisan Yu
, and
Huai-Min Zhang
Free access
Chelsea R. Thompson
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Steven C. Wofsy
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Michael J. Prather
,
Paul A. Newman
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Thomas F. Hanisco
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Thomas B. Ryerson
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David W. Fahey
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Eric C. Apel
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Charles A. Brock
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William H. Brune
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Karl Froyd
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Joseph M. Katich
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Julie M. Nicely
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Jeff Peischl
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Eric Ray
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Patrick R. Veres
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Siyuan Wang
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Hannah M. Allen
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Elizabeth Asher
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Huisheng Bian
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Donald Blake
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Ilann Bourgeois
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John Budney
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T. Paul Bui
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Amy Butler
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Pedro Campuzano-Jost
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Cecilia Chang
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Mian Chin
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Róisín Commane
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Gus Correa
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John D. Crounse
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Bruce Daube
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Jack E. Dibb
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Joshua P. DiGangi
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Glenn S. Diskin
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Maximilian Dollner
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James W. Elkins
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Arlene M. Fiore
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Clare M. Flynn
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Hao Guo
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Samuel R. Hall
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Reem A. Hannun
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Alan Hills
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Eric J. Hintsa
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Alma Hodzic
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Rebecca S. Hornbrook
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L. Greg Huey
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Jose L. Jimenez
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Ralph F. Keeling
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Michelle J. Kim
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Agnieszka Kupc
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Forrest Lacey
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Leslie R. Lait
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Jean-Francois Lamarque
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Junhua Liu
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Kathryn McKain
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Simone Meinardi
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David O. Miller
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Stephen A. Montzka
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Fred L. Moore
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Eric J. Morgan
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Daniel M. Murphy
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Lee T. Murray
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Benjamin A. Nault
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J. Andrew Neuman
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Louis Nguyen
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Yenny Gonzalez
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Andrew Rollins
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Karen Rosenlof
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Maryann Sargent
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Gregory Schill
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Joshua P. Schwarz
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Jason M. St. Clair
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Stephen D. Steenrod
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Britton B. Stephens
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Susan E. Strahan
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Sarah A. Strode
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Colm Sweeney
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Alexander B. Thames
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Kirk Ullmann
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Nicholas Wagner
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Rodney Weber
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Bernadett Weinzierl
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Paul O. Wennberg
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Christina J. Williamson
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Glenn M. Wolfe
, and
Linghan Zeng

Abstract

This article provides an overview of the NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) mission and a summary of selected scientific findings to date. ATom was an airborne measurements and modeling campaign aimed at characterizing the composition and chemistry of the troposphere over the most remote regions of the Pacific, Southern, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans, and examining the impact of anthropogenic and natural emissions on a global scale. These remote regions dominate global chemical reactivity and are exceptionally important for global air quality and climate. ATom data provide the in situ measurements needed to understand the range of chemical species and their reactions, and to test satellite remote sensing observations and global models over large regions of the remote atmosphere. Lack of data in these regions, particularly over the oceans, has limited our understanding of how atmospheric composition is changing in response to shifting anthropogenic emissions and physical climate change. ATom was designed as a global-scale tomographic sampling mission with extensive geographic and seasonal coverage, tropospheric vertical profiling, and detailed speciation of reactive compounds and pollution tracers. ATom flew the NASA DC-8 research aircraft over four seasons to collect a comprehensive suite of measurements of gases, aerosols, and radical species from the remote troposphere and lower stratosphere on four global circuits from 2016 to 2018. Flights maintained near-continuous vertical profiling of 0.15–13-km altitudes on long meridional transects of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins. Analysis and modeling of ATom data have led to the significant early findings highlighted here.

Full access
Molly Baringer
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Mariana B. Bif
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Tim Boyer
,
Seth M. Bushinsky
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Brendan R. Carter
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Ivona Cetinić
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Don P. Chambers
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Lijing Cheng
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Sanai Chiba
,
Minhan Dai
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Catia M. Domingues
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Shenfu Dong
,
Andrea J. Fassbender
,
Richard A. Feely
,
Eleanor Frajka-Williams
,
Bryan A. Franz
,
John Gilson
,
Gustavo Goni
,
Benjamin D. Hamlington
,
Zeng-Zhen Hu
,
Boyin Huang
,
Masayoshi Ishii
,
Svetlana Jevrejeva
,
William E. Johns
,
Gregory C. Johnson
,
Kenneth S. Johnson
,
John Kennedy
,
Marion Kersalé
,
Rachel E. Killick
,
Peter Landschützer
,
Matthias Lankhorst
,
Tong Lee
,
Eric Leuliette
,
Feili Li
,
Eric Lindstrom
,
Ricardo Locarnini
,
Susan Lozier
,
John M. Lyman
,
John J. Marra
,
Christopher S. Meinen
,
Mark A. Merrifield
,
Gary T. Mitchum
,
Ben Moat
,
Didier Monselesan
,
R. Steven Nerem
,
Renellys C. Perez
,
Sarah G. Purkey
,
Darren Rayner
,
James Reagan
,
Nicholas Rome
,
Alejandra Sanchez-Franks
,
Claudia Schmid
,
Joel P. Scott
,
Uwe Send
,
David A. Siegel
,
David A. Smeed
,
Sabrina Speich
,
Paul W. Stackhouse Jr.
,
William Sweet
,
Yuichiro Takeshita
,
Philip R. Thompson
,
Joaquin A. Triñanes
,
Martin Visbeck
,
Denis L. Volkov
,
Rik Wanninkhof
,
Robert A. Weller
,
Toby K. Westberry
,
Matthew J. Widlansky
,
Susan E. Wijffels
,
Anne C. Wilber
,
Lisan Yu
,
Weidong Yu
, and
Huai-Min Zhang
Free access