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Roscoe R. Braham Jr. and Maureen J. Dungey

Abstract

A climatological study of snowfall in the snowbelts of Michigan shows that decade-average amounts varied by a factor of 2 during the period from 1909/10 through 1980/81.

The effect of Lake Michigan on total winter snowfall along its shores has been estimated. A long-term average effect of ∼ +10% is found for the Wisconsin shore south of Sheboygan, and an average of ∼ +60% for the Michigan shore, south of Hart, with a minimum effect in the 1930s and a maximum in the 1960s.

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Louis J. Battan and Roscoe R. Braham Jr.

Abstract

Observations of precipitation and cloud-top height in the central United States and in the Caribbean area, obtained from radar-equipped airplanes, have been analyzed in terms of the fraction of clouds of a given height which contains precipitation. These data are compared with observations of a similar type taken by Braham, Reynolds and Harrell in New Mexico. It is concluded that the condensation-coalescence process can account for the formation of precipitation in convective clouds in all three regions but in varying proportions of clouds.

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Richard E. Passarelli Jr. and Roscoe R. Braham Jr.

Radar and aircraft data are presented, in the form of case studies, for three shoreline-parallel snow bands that occurred over Lake Michigan. In all three cases a winter land breeze from one or both shores is shown to have an important role in organizing the low-level convergence and convective motions. These cases are compared with earlier studies of lake-effect snow bands on Lakes Erie and Ontario.

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Roscoe R. Braham Jr. and David A. R. Kristovich

Abstract

Aircraft measurements of vertical air motions are used in a process of conditional sampling to select updraft and downdraft cores during a period of strong lake-effect convection. Corresponding measurements of temperature and moisture are used to calculate the buoyancies of the cores and to evaluate the dependence of the calculated buoyancy on the horizontal extent of core environment used in the calculations. Results suggest that calculated buoyancies are relatively insensitive to the definition of core environment.

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Paul A. Spyers-Duran and Roscoe R. Braham Jr.

Abstract

An instrument for collecting cloud particles from an airplane has been developed. Cloud particles are captured and permanently replicated using the well known Formvar technique. From the continuous record of hydrometeor replicas, the forms, sizes and frequency distributions can be established. Description of the instrument and examples of data collected from natural clouds are presented. Problems of calibration are discussed.

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EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, Joanne Simpson, James R. Mahoney, Roscoe R. Braham Jr., Albert J. Kaehn Jr., Ian D. Rutherford, William D. Bonner, Richard E. Hallgren, and Kenneth C. Spengler
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EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, Albert J. Kaehn Jr., Roscoe R. Braham Jr., J. Smagorinsky, C. J. Murino, Julia N. Paegle, Douglas H. Sargeant, and K. C. Spengler
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EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, James R. Mahoney, William D. Bonner, Joanne Simpson, Roscoe R. Braham Jr., Robert J. Serafin, Paul D. Try, Richard E. Hallgren, and Kenneth C. Spengler
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