Search Results

You are looking at 31 - 40 of 185 items for

  • Author or Editor: Shang-Ping Xie x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Masaru Inatsu
,
Hitoshi Mukougawa
, and
Shang-Ping Xie

Abstract

A set of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments under idealized conditions is performed to investigate atmospheric response to surface boundary forcing by extratropical land–sea contrast, large-scale orography, and tropical sea surface temperature (SST) distribution. Stationary eddies forced by the extratropical land–sea distribution are strongest in high latitudes, but their amplitudes are modest and comparable to internal chaotic variability. By contrast, the stationary eddy response to zonal variations in tropical SST is strong and robust in both the subtropics and midlatitudes. While these SST-forced stationary waves are trapped within the troposphere, those induced by orography show a strong vertical propagation into the stratosphere. Analysis of transient eddies indicates that orography is effective in generating a zonally localized storm track while extratropical land–sea contrast has little effect on the zonal variation of upper-level storm activity.

A vorticity budget analysis is carried out to understand tropical SST forcing mechanism to set up extratropical stationary eddies. In the subtropics, the dominant balance is reached between the vortex stretching and zonal advection. North of the tropical warm water pool, a subtropical anticyclone forms in the upper troposphere in response to the divergence of the locally enhanced Hadley circulation. The authors further show that this subtropical response to tropical SST variations has nonlinear characteristics in both its amplitude and zonal phase.

Full access
Hiroki Tokinaga
,
Youichi Tanimoto
, and
Shang-Ping Xie

Abstract

The confluence of the Brazil–Malvinas Currents maintains strong sea surface temperature (SST) fronts in the midlatitude southwestern Atlantic year-round. SST effects on near-surface stability and surface wind variations are examined in this region using satellite and in situ datasets. Satellite observations show strong (weak) surface wind speeds over the warm Brazil (cold Malvinas) Current. A novel feature of this study is the construction of a high-resolution surface meteorological dataset that is based on historical ship observations. Analysis of this new in situ dataset reveals an increased (reduced) sea–air temperature difference over the Brazil (Malvinas) Current, indicating destabilization (stabilization) in the atmospheric boundary layer. These results are consistent with the SST-induced vertical mixing mechanism for wind adjustment. The SST effect on the near-surface atmosphere is observed both in the climatology and on interannual time scales in the Brazil–Malvinas confluence. Along a zonal SST front at 49°S northeast of the Malvinas/Falkland Islands, there is a collocated line of surface wind divergence, with moderate convergence to the north. Vertical mixing does not explain this divergence pattern because the prevailing surface winds are westerly, blowing in parallel with the front. An additional mechanism is proposed for boundary layer wind adjustment.

Full access
Shang-Ping Xie
,
Atsushi Kubokawa
, and
Kimio Hanawa

Abstract

A one-layer reduced-gravity ocean model and a linear single-mode baroclinic atmosphere model are coupled to investigate the ocean-atmosphere interaction in the tropics. The original Kraus-Turner formula is adopted to parameterize the entrainment in the ocean mixed layer and an external wind is imposed to sustain a basic state of the ocean. By examining the linear stability of the model, we show that the existence of ocean upwelling is one of the necessary conditions for eastward propagating instability. According to the upwelling's strength, the tropical ocean is separated into two regions, i.e., a stable region in the west and an unstable one in the cast.

In the fully nonlinear experiment, oscillation with a period of several years appears, which is asymmetric between the warm and cold phases because of the existence of two different coupled instabilities. The eastward unstable mode is responsible for the warm phase, while the cold phase is attributed to the unstable Rossby mode, which advects westward the cold water upwelled by a Kelvin wave in the east. The unstable Rossby mode radiates a free Rossby wave into the western stable region, which reflects at the western boundary into a Kelvin wave. The reflected Kelvin wave suppresses the westward temperature advection in the central region and triggers the next warm phase. The model's results are found to compare favorably with observations and GCM simulations in several respects.

Full access
Honghai Zhang
,
Richard Seager
, and
Shang-Ping Xie

Abstract

The Indian Ocean has an intriguing intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) south of the equator year-round, which remains largely unexplored. Here we investigate this Indian Ocean ITCZ and the mechanisms for its origin. With a weak semiannual cycle, this ITCZ peaks in January–February with the strongest rainfall and southernmost location and a northeast–southwest orientation from the Maritime Continent to Madagascar, reaches a minimum around May with a zonal orientation, grows until its secondary maximum around September with a northwest–southeast orientation, weakens slightly until December, and then regains its mature phase in January. During austral summer, the Indian Ocean ITCZ exists over maximum surface moist static energy (MSE), consistent with convective quasi-equilibrium theory. This relationship breaks up during boreal summer when the surface MSE maximizes in the northern monsoon region. The position and orientation of the Indian Ocean ITCZ can be simulated well in both a linear dynamical model and the state-of-the-art Community Atmosphere Model version 6 (CAM6) when driven by observed sea surface temperature (SST). To quantify the contributions of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and free-atmosphere processes to this ITCZ, we homogenize the free-atmosphere diabatic heating over the Indian Ocean in CAM6. In response, the ITCZ weakens significantly, owing to a weakened circulation and deep convection. Therefore, in CAM6, the SST drives the Indian Ocean ITCZ directly through PBL processes and indirectly via free-atmosphere diabatic heating. Their contributions are comparable during most seasons, except during the austral summer when the free-atmosphere diabatic heating dominates the mature-phase ITCZ.

Significance Statement

The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is the globe-encircling band where trade winds converge and strong rainfall occurs in the tropics. Its rains provide life-supporting water to billions of people. Its associated latent heating invigorates the tropical atmospheric circulation and influences climate and weather across the planet. The ITCZ is located north of the equator in most tropical oceans, except in the Indian Ocean where it sits south of the equator year-around. In contrast to the well-known northern ITCZs, the origin of the southern ITCZ in the Indian Ocean remains unknown. This work provides the first explanation for how ocean surface temperature works together with processes in the lower and upper atmosphere to shape the unique ITCZ in the Indian Ocean.

Full access
Shuo Li
,
Wei Mei
, and
Shang-Ping Xie

Abstract

This study quantifies the contributions of tropical sea surface temperature (SST) variations during the boreal warm season to the interannual-to-decadal variability in tropical cyclone genesis frequency (TCGF) over the Northern Hemisphere ocean basins. The first seven leading modes of tropical SST variability are found to affect basinwide TCGF in one or more basins, and are related to canonical El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), global warming (GW), the Pacific meridional mode (PMM), Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO), Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and the Atlantic meridional mode (AMM). These modes account for approximately 58%, 50%, and 56% of the variance in basinwide TCGF during 1969–2018 over the North Atlantic (NA), northeast Pacific (NEP), and northwest Pacific (NWP) Oceans, respectively. The SST effect is weak on TCGF variability in the north Indian Ocean. The SST modes dominating TCGF variability differ among the basins: ENSO, the AMO, AMM, and GW are dominant for the NA; ENSO and the AMO for the NEP; and the PMM, interannual AMO, and GW for the NWP. A specific mode may have opposite effects on TCGF in different basins, particularly between the NA and NEP. Sliding-window multiple linear regression analyses show that the SST effects on basinwide TCGF are stable in time in the NA and NWP, but have strengthened since the 1990s in the NEP. The SST effects on local TC genesis and occurrence frequency are also explored, and the underlying physical mechanisms are examined by diagnosing a genesis potential index and its components.

Full access
Shineng Hu
,
Shang-Ping Xie
, and
Wei Liu

Abstract

This study examines global patterns of net ocean surface heat flux changes (ΔQnet) under greenhouse warming in an ocean–atmosphere coupled model based on a heat budget decomposition. The regional structure of ΔQnet is primarily shaped by ocean heat divergence changes (ΔOHD): excessive heat is absorbed by higher-latitude oceans (mainly over the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean), transported equatorward, and stored in lower-latitude oceans with the rest being released to the tropical atmosphere. The overall global pattern of ΔOHD is primarily due to the circulation change and partially compensated by the passive advection effect, except for the Southern Ocean, which requires further investigations for a more definitive attribution. The mechanisms of North Atlantic surface heat uptake are further explored. In another set of global warming simulations, a perturbation of freshwater removal is imposed over the subpolar North Atlantic to largely offset the CO2-induced changes in the local ocean vertical stratification, barotropic gyre, and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Results from the freshwater perturbation experiments suggest that a significant portion of the positive ΔQnet over the North Atlantic under greenhouse warming is caused by the Atlantic circulation changes, perhaps mainly by the slowdown of AMOC, while the passive advection effect can contribute to the regional variations of ΔQnet. Our results imply that ocean circulation changes are critical for shaping global warming pattern and thus hydrological cycle changes.

Free access
Haiming Xu
,
Hiroki Tokinaga
, and
Shang-Ping Xie

Abstract

In the summer of 2004, the Kuroshio took a large meander path south of Japan for the first time since 1991, and this large meander event persisted until the next summer. Satellite observations and numerical model simulations are used to study the effect of this large meander event on the atmosphere. The large meander leaves a cool water pool between the Kuroshio and Japanese coast. Sea surface temperature (SST) in the cool water pool is about 2°–3°C colder than the surroundings during winter and spring, whereas the SST signature substantially weakens in summer. A local reduction of wind speed is found over the cool water pool, and the positive SST–wind speed correlation is indicative of ocean forcing of the atmosphere. Cloud liquid water (CLW) content and precipitation also decrease over the cool SST pool.

A regional atmospheric model successfully simulates atmospheric response to the Kuroshio large meander. The model experiments suggest that the reduced surface wind speed and precipitation are due to the large meander-induced SST cooling. Analysis of the surface perturbation momentum budgets shows the importance of the pressure adjustment mechanism in surface wind response to the cold SST anomalies.

Full access
Akira Kuwano-Yoshida
,
Shoshiro Minobe
, and
Shang-Ping Xie

Abstract

The precipitation response to sea surface temperature (SST) gradients associated with the Gulf Stream is investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model. Forced by observed SST, the model simulates a narrow band of precipitation, surface convergence, and evaporation that closely follows the Gulf Stream, much like satellite observations. Such a Gulf Stream rainband disappears in the model when the SST front is removed by horizontally smoothing SST. The analysis herein shows that it is convective precipitation that is sensitive to SST gradients. The Gulf Stream anchors a convective rainband by creating surface wind convergence and intensifying surface evaporation on the warmer flank. Deep convection develops near the Gulf Stream in summer when the atmosphere is conditionally unstable. As a result, a narrow band of upward velocity develops above the Gulf Stream throughout the troposphere in summer, while it is limited to the lower troposphere in other seasons.

Full access
Yu Kosaka
,
Shang-Ping Xie
, and
Hisashi Nakamura

Abstract

The summertime mei-yu–baiu rainband over East Asia displays considerable interannual variability. A singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis for interannual variability reveals that precipitation anomalies over the mei-yu–baiu region are accompanied by in situ anomalies of midtropospheric horizontal temperature advection. Anomalous warm (cool) advection causes increased (decreased) mei-yu–baiu precipitation locally by inducing adiabatic ascent (descent). The anomalous precipitation acts to reinforce the vertical motion, forming a feedback system. By this mechanism, the remotely forced anomalous atmospheric circulation can induce changes in mei-yu–baiu precipitation. The quasi-stationary precipitation anomalies induced by this mechanism are partially offset by transient eddies.

The SVD analysis also reveals the association of mei-yu–baiu precipitation anomalies with several teleconnection patterns, suggesting remote induction mechanisms. The Pacific–Japan (PJ) teleconnection pattern, which is associated with anomalous convection over the tropical western North Pacific, contributes to mei-yu–baiu precipitation variability throughout the boreal summer. The PJ pattern mediates influences of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation in preceding boreal winter on mei-yu–baiu precipitation. In early summer, the leading covariability pattern between precipitation and temperature advection also features the Silk Road pattern—a wave train along the summertime Asian jet—and another wave train pattern to the north along the polar-front jet that often leads to the development of the surface Okhotsk high.

Full access
Yina Diao
,
Shang-Ping Xie
, and
Dehai Luo

Abstract

Interannual variations of winter warm and cold extremes in Europe are investigated. It is found that the variations are closely connected to the phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The leading EOF of the winter cold (warm) surface air temperature (SAT) extreme frequency shows an enhanced occurrence over western (eastern) Europe. The SAT probability distribution function of the cold extreme winter exhibits both a decrease of the mean SAT and a marked increase in SAT variance, whereas it shows only a shift of the mean SAT to the warmer side for extreme warm winters.

This study reveals an asymmetry in location between the cold and warm extremes, caused by the NAO modulations of blocking events and other submonthly variations. Winters with frequent cold extremes are mainly accompanied by the eastern Atlantic blocking. The circulation causes not only marked local cooling but also increased SAT gradient, resulting in both enhanced SAT variance and increased occurrence of cold extremes. By contrast, winters with frequent warm extremes are associated with the northeast–southwest tilted positive NAO pattern. The warm advection by the submonthly perturbations is responsible for the development of warm extremes. The reduced SAT gradient due to enhanced warm advection weakens SAT variance over northern Europe. Thus, the cold extremes are larger in terms of deviations from the monthly mean than the warm extremes.

Full access