Search Results

You are looking at 31 - 40 of 116 items for

  • Author or Editor: Wei Wang x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Xin-Zhong Liang, Arthur N. Samel, and Wei-Chyung Wang

Abstract

China's rainfall interannual predictability is generally believed to depend upon the accurate representation of its annual cycle as well as teleconnections with planetary surface anomalies, including tropical east Pacific sea surface temperature and Eurasian snow and soil moisture. A suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations is used to ascertain the existence of these relationships. First, a comparison of thirty 1980–88 Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) GCM simulations shows no clear correspondence between model skill to reproduce observed rainfall annual cycle and interannual variability. Thus, accurate representation of either component does not ensure the realistic simulation of the other. Second, diagnosis of the 1903–94 and 1950–97 National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model, version 3 (CCM3), ensemble integrations indicates the existence of teleconnections in which spring planetary surface anomalies lead China's summer rainfall variations. These teleconnections, however, are sensitive to initial conditions, which define distinct dynamic regimes during the integration period. In addition, analysis of the NCAR Climate System Model (CSM) 300-yr equilibrium simulation reveals that the teleconnections display decadal variations. These results cast doubt on the traditional physical mechanisms that explain China's rainfall teleconnections and, hence, emphasize the need to incorporate interactions between planetary surface anomalies and specific dynamic regimes.

Full access
Xin-Zhong Liang, Wei-Chyung Wang, and Michael P. Dudek

Abstract

Observed and general circulation climate model (GCM) simulated interannual teleconnection patterns in the Northern Hemisphere are compared on a monthly basis. The study was based on 1946–1991 observations and two separate 100-year simulations corresponding to the present climate and a greenhouse warming climate. The teleconnection patterns are characterized by action centers and composite extreme anomaly (CEA) distributions. The definition and comparison of observed and simulated patterns include examination of time persistence, spatial coherence as well as consistent signatures between 500-mb height, sea level pressure, and surface air temperature.

For the present climate simulation, the GCM reproduces observed spatial and temporal variations of the action centers of four principal teleconnection patterns: the North Atlantic oscillation, the North Pacific oscillation, the Pacific/North American pattern, and the Eurasian pattern. Substantial model biases exist in the magnitude, regional structure as well as monthly transition of anomalies. The CEA regional characteristics are better simulated over land than over the oceans. For example, the model most accurately simulates the Eurasian pattern, which has its dominant action centers over Eurasia. In addition, all three climate variables exhibit substantial anomalies for each land-based action center. In contrast, over the oceans, the model systematically underestimates sea level pressure and 500-mb height CEAs, while it produces small surface temperature responses. It is suggested that atmospheric dynamics associated with flow instability is likely to be the dominant mechanism that generates these teleconnections, while the lack of interactive ocean dynamics may be responsible for small responses over the oceans.

In the greenhouse warming climate, the GCM continues to simulate the four interannual teleconnection patterns. Systematic changes, however, are found for the Pacific/North American and Eurasian patterns in winter, where the action centers shift to the east and the CEAs weaken over land. These results must be considered to be exploratory because of the use of a mixed layer ocean that does not include oceanic dynamics.

Full access
Arthur N. Samel, Wei-Chyung Wang, and Xin-Zhong Liang

Abstract

Yearly variations in the observed initial and final dates of heavy, persistent monsoon rainband precipitation across China are quantified. The development of a semiobjective analysis that identifies these values also makes it possible to calculate annual rainband duration and total rainfall. Relationships between total rainband precipitation and the Eurasian circulation are then determined. This research is designed such that observed rainband characteristics can be used in future investigations to evaluate GCM simulations.

Normalized daily precipitation time series are analyzed between 1951 and 1990 for 85 observation stations to develop criteria that describe general rainband characteristics throughout China. Rainfall is defined to be “heavy” if the daily value at a given location is greater than 1.5% of the annual mean total. Heavy precipitation is then shown to be “persistent” and is thus identified with the rainband when the 1.5% threshold is exceeded at least 6 times in a 25-day period. Finally, rainband initial (final) dates are defined to immediately follow (precede) a minimum period of 5 consecutive days with no measurable precipitation. A semiobjective analysis based on the above definitions and rainband climatology is then applied to the time series to determine annual initial and final dates.

Analysis application produces results that closely correspond to the systematic pattern observed across China, where the rainband arrives in the south during May, advances to the Yangtze River valley in June, and then to the north in July. Rainband duration (i.e., final − initial + 1) is approximately 30–40 days while total rainfall decreases from south to north. A significant positive correlation is found between total rainfall and duration interannual variability, where increased rainband precipitation corresponds to initial (final) dates that are anomalously early (late). No clear trends are identified except over north China, where both duration and total rainfall decrease substantially after 1967.

The Eurasian sea level pressure and 500-hPa height fields are then correlated with total rainfall over south China, the Yangtze River valley, and north China to identify statistically significant relationships. Results indicate that precipitation amount is influenced by the interaction of several circulation features. Total rainfall increases over south China when the surface Siberian high ridges to the south and is overrun by warm moist air aloft. Yangtze River valley precipitation intensifies when westward expansion of the subtropical high along with strengthening of the Siberian high and monsoon low cause moisture advection, upward motion, and the thermal gradient along the Mei-Yu front to increase. North China total rainfall increases in response to intense heating over the landmass, westward ridging of the subtropical high, and greater moisture transport over the region.

Full access
Wei-Yu Chang, Tai-Chi Chen Wang, and Pay-Liam Lin

Abstract

The drop size distribution (DSD) and drop shape relation (DSR) characteristics that were observed by a ground-based 2D video disdrometer and retrieved from a C-band polarimetric radar in the typhoon systems during landfall in the western Pacific, near northern Taiwan, were analyzed. The evolution of the DSD and its relation with the vertical development of the reflectivity of two rainband cases are fully illustrated. Three different types of precipitation systems were classified—weak stratiform, stratiform, and convective—according to characteristics of the mass-weighted diameter Dm, the maximum diameter, and the vertical structure of reflectivity. Further study of the relationship between the height H of the 15-dBZ contour of the vertical reflectivity profile, surface reflectivity Z, and the mass-weighted diameter Dm showed that Dm increased with a corresponding increase in the system depth H and reflectivity Z.

An analysis of DSDs retrieved from the National Central University (NCU) C-band polarimetric radar and disdrometer in typhoon cases indicates that the DSDs from the typhoon systems on the ocean were mainly a maritime convective type. However, the DSDs collected over land tended to uniquely locate in between the continental and maritime clusters. The average mass-weighted diameter Dm was about 2 mm and the average logarithmic normalized intercept Nw was about 3.8 log10 mm−1 m−3 in typhoon cases. The unique terrain-influenced deep convective systems embedded in typhoons in northern Taiwan might be the reason for these characteristics.

The “effective DSR” of typhoon systems had an axis ratio similar to that found by E. A. Brandes et al. when the raindrops were less than 1.5 mm. Nevertheless, the axis ratio tended to be more spherical with drops greater than 1.5 mm and under higher horizontal winds (maximum wind speed less than 8 m s−1). A fourth-order fitting DSR was derived for typhoon systems and the value was also very close to the estimated DSR from the polarimetric measurements in Typhoon Saomai (2006).

Full access
Chia-Chi Wang, Wei-Liang Lee, and Chia Chou

ABSTRACT

Aerosols are one of the key factors influencing the hydrological cycle and radiation balance of the climate system. Although most aerosols deposit near their sources, the induced cooling effect is on a global scale and can influence the tropical atmosphere through slow processes, such as air–sea interactions. This study analyzes several simulations of fully coupled atmosphere–ocean climate models under the influence of anthropogenic aerosols, with the concentrations of greenhouse gases kept constant. In the cooling simulations, precipitation is reduced in deep convective areas but increased around the edges of convective areas, which is opposite to the “rich-get-richer” phenomenon in global warming scenarios in the first-order approximation. Tropical convection is intensified with a shallower depth, and tropical circulations are enhanced. The anomalous gross moist stability (M′) mechanism and the upped-ante mechanism can be used to explain the dynamic and thermodynamic processes in the changes in tropical precipitation and convection. There is a northward cross-equatorial energy transport due to the cooler Northern Hemisphere in most of the simulations, together with the southward shift of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the enhancement of the Hadley circulation. The enhancement of the Hadley circulation is more consistent between models than the changes of the Walker circulation. The change in the Hadley circulation is not as negligible as in the warming cases in previous studies, which supports the consistency of the ITCZ shift in cooling simulations.

Full access
Wei Wu, Zhiping Wen, Renguang Wu, and Tongmei Wang

Abstract

In the present study, monthly mean objectively analyzed air–sea fluxes (OAFlux) and NCEP–Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis datasets are employed to investigate air–sea interaction over the subtropical North Pacific during the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) transition phase. A coupled low-frequency mode is identified, for which surface net heat flux and atmospheric circulation changes are strongly coupled during the ENSO transition phase. This mode features anomalous cooling (warming) and low-level anomalous cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation over the subtropical North Pacific. When this mode is prominent, the atmospheric circulation anomalies lead to SST cooling (warming) through surface heat flux anomalies associated with increases (decreases) in the sea–air temperature and humidity differences induced by anomalous cold (warm) advection. In turn, positive heat flux anomalies induce more surface heating, and the SST cooling (warming) causes less (more) deep convective heating. The anomalous surface heating and deep convective heating contribute significantly to anomalous circulation through the thermal adaptation mechanism (adaptation of atmospheric circulation to vertical differential heating). This positive feedback favors the maintenance of these anomalous winds over the subtropical North Pacific.

Full access
Zhou Shenghui, Wei Ming, Wang Lijun, Zhao Chang, and Zhang Mingxu

Abstract

The sensitivity of the ill-conditioned coefficient matrix (CM) and the size of the analysis volume on the retrieval accuracy in the volume velocity processing (VVP) method are analyzed. By estimating the upper limit of the retrieval error and analyzing the effects of neglected parameters on retrieval accuracy, the simplified wind model is found to decrease the difficulty in solving and stabilizing the retrieval results, even though model errors would be induced by neglecting partial parameters. Strong linear correlation among CM vectors would cause an ill-conditioned matrix when more parameters are selected. By using exact coordinate data and changing the size of the analysis volume, the variation of the condition number indicates that a large volume size decreases the condition number, and the decrease caused by increasing the number of volume gates is larger than that caused by increasing the sector width. Using the spread of errors in the solution, a demonstration using mathematical deduction is provided to explain how a large analysis volume can improve retrieval accuracy. A test with a uniform wind field is used to demonstrate these conclusions.

Full access
Wei Mei, Shang-Ping Xie, Ming Zhao, and Yuqing Wang

Abstract

Forced interannual-to-decadal variability of annual tropical cyclone (TC) track density in the western North Pacific between 1979 and 2008 is studied using TC tracks from observations and simulations by a 25-km-resolution version of the GFDL High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) that is forced by observed sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Two modes dominate the decadal variability: a nearly basinwide mode, and a dipole mode between the subtropics and lower latitudes. The former mode links to variations in TC number and is forced by SST variations over the off-equatorial tropical central North Pacific, whereas the latter might be associated with the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. The interannual variability is also controlled by two modes: a basinwide mode driven by SST anomalies of opposite signs located in the tropical central Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean, and a southeast–northwest dipole mode connected to the conventional eastern Pacific ENSO. The seasonal evolution of the ENSO effect on TC activity is further explored via a joint empirical orthogonal function analysis using TC track density of consecutive seasons, and the analysis reveals that two types of ENSO are at work. Internal variability in TC track density is then examined using ensemble simulations from both HiRAM and a regional atmospheric model. It exhibits prominent spatial and seasonal patterns, and it is particularly strong in the South China Sea and along the coast of East Asia. This makes an accurate prediction and projection of TC landfall extremely challenging in these regions. In contrast, basin-integrated metrics (e.g., total TC counts and TC days) are more predictable.

Full access
Chia-Chi Wang, Chia Chou, and Wei-Liang Lee

Abstract

The effects of moisture on the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) over the eastern Pacific on the synoptic time scale are investigated using an intermediate complexity atmospheric circulation model, the quasi-equilibrium tropical circulation model (QTCM1), on an aquaplanet.

The dry simulation shows results consistent with those of simple dynamic models, except that a slightly stronger heating rate is needed owing to different model designs. In the moist simulations, the most important result is the formation of a tail southwest of a vortex during and after the ITCZ breakdown. This tail may extend zonally more than 60° longitude and last for more than two weeks in an idealized simulation. In the eastern North Pacific, this phenomenon is often observed in cases that involve easterly waves. In a sense, the formation of the tail suggests a possible mechanism that forms an ITCZ efficiently.

This study shows that the surface convergent flow induced by a disturbance initializes a positive wind–evaporation feedback that forms the tail. In the tail, the most important energy source is surface evaporation, and the latent heat is nicely balanced by an adiabatic cooling of the ascending motion. In other words, the energy is redistributed vertically by vertical energy convergence.

The lifespan of the tail is controlled by the propagation of tropical waves that modify the surface wind pattern, leading to a decrease in surface wind speed and corresponding surface fluxes. It may explain the absence of the tail in some of the events in the real atmosphere.

Full access
Wei Li, Yuanfu Xie, Shiow-Ming Deng, and Qi Wang

Abstract

In recent years, the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has developed a space and time mesoscale analysis system (STMAS), which is currently a sequential three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) system and is developing into a sequential 4DVAR in the near future. It is implemented by using a multigrid method based on a variational approach to generate grid analyses. This study is to test how STMAS deals with 2D Doppler radar radial velocity and to what degree the 2D Doppler radar radial velocity can improve the conventional (in situ) observation analysis. Two idealized experiments and one experiment with real Doppler radar radial velocity data, handled by STMAS, demonstrated significant improvement of the conventional observation analysis. Because the radar radial wind data can provide additional wind information (even it is incomplete: e.g., missing tangential wind vector), the analyses by assimilating both radial wind data and conventional data showed better results than those by assimilating only conventional data. Especially in the case of sparse conventional data, radar radial wind data can provide significant information and improve the analyses considerably.

Full access