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Zhe Li, Huiwen Xue, Jen-Ping Chen, and Wei-Chyung Wang

Abstract

This study investigates the effects of meteorological conditions and aerosols on marine stratocumulus in the southeastern Pacific using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. Two regimes with different temperature and moisture conditions in the finest model domain are investigated. The western regime is around 87°–79°W, while the eastern regime is around 79°–71°W. In both regimes, cloud fraction, liquid water path (LWP), cloud thickness, and precipitation show significant diurnal cycles. Cloud fraction can be 0.83 during the night and down to 0.29 during the day in the western regime. The diurnal cycles in the eastern regime have smaller amplitudes but are still very strong. Stratocumulus properties also differ in the two regimes. Compared to the western regime, the eastern regime has lower temperature, higher relative humidity, and a more coupled boundary layer, leading to higher cloud fraction (by 0.11) and lower cloud-base height. The eastern regime also has lower inversion height that causes lower cloud-top height and thinner clouds and, hence, lower LWP and less precipitation.

Cloud microphysical properties are very sensitive to aerosols in both regimes. Increasing aerosols greatly increase cloud number concentration, decrease cloud effective radius, and suppress precipitation. Cloud macrophysical properties (cloud fraction, LWP) are not sensitive to aerosols in either regime, most notably in the eastern regime where precipitation amount is less. The changes in cloud fraction and LWP caused by changes in aerosol concentrations are smaller than the changes in the diurnal cycle and the spatial variability between the two regimes.

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Wei-Chyung Wang, Joseph P. Pinto, and Yuk Ling Yung

Abstract

Using a one-dimensional radiative-convective model, we perform a sensitivity study of the effect of ozone depletion in the stratosphere on the surface temperature. There could be a cooling of the surface temperature by ∼0.2 K due to chlorofluoromethane-induced ozone depletion at steady state (assuming 1973 release rates). This cooling reduces significantly the greenhouse effect due to the presence of chlorofluoromethanes. Carbon tetrafluoride has a strong ν3 band at 7.8 μm, and the atmospheric greenhouse effect is shown to be 0.07 and 0.12 K (ppbv)−1 with and without taking into account overlap with CH4 and N2O bands. At concentration higher than l ppbv, absorption by the ν3 band starts to saturate and the greenhouse effect becomes less efficient.

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Wei Wu, Zhiping Wen, Renguang Wu, and Tongmei Wang

Abstract

In the present study, monthly mean objectively analyzed air–sea fluxes (OAFlux) and NCEP–Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis datasets are employed to investigate air–sea interaction over the subtropical North Pacific during the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) transition phase. A coupled low-frequency mode is identified, for which surface net heat flux and atmospheric circulation changes are strongly coupled during the ENSO transition phase. This mode features anomalous cooling (warming) and low-level anomalous cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation over the subtropical North Pacific. When this mode is prominent, the atmospheric circulation anomalies lead to SST cooling (warming) through surface heat flux anomalies associated with increases (decreases) in the sea–air temperature and humidity differences induced by anomalous cold (warm) advection. In turn, positive heat flux anomalies induce more surface heating, and the SST cooling (warming) causes less (more) deep convective heating. The anomalous surface heating and deep convective heating contribute significantly to anomalous circulation through the thermal adaptation mechanism (adaptation of atmospheric circulation to vertical differential heating). This positive feedback favors the maintenance of these anomalous winds over the subtropical North Pacific.

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Yaru Guo, Yuanlong Li, Fan Wang, and Yuntao Wei

Abstract

Ningaloo Niño—the interannually occurring warming episode in the southeast Indian Ocean (SEIO)—has strong signatures in ocean temperature and circulation and exerts profound impacts on regional climate and marine biosystems. Analysis of observational data and eddy-resolving regional ocean model simulations reveals that the Ningaloo Niño/Niña can also induce pronounced variability in ocean salinity, causing large-scale sea surface salinity (SSS) freshening of 0.15–0.20 psu in the SEIO during its warm phase. Model experiments are performed to understand the underlying processes. This SSS freshening is mutually caused by the increased local precipitation (~68%) and enhanced freshwater transport of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF; ~28%) during Ningaloo Niño events. The effects of other processes, such as local winds and evaporation, are secondary (~18%). The ITF enhances the southward freshwater advection near the eastern boundary, which is critical in causing the strong freshening (>0.20 psu) near the Western Australian coast. Owing to the strong modulation effect of the ITF, SSS near the coast bears a higher correlation with El Niño–Southern Oscillation (0.57, 0.77, and 0.70 with the Niño-3, Niño-4, and Niño-3.4 indices, respectively) than sea surface temperature (−0.27, −0.42, and −0.35) during 1993–2016. Yet, an idealized model experiment with artificial damping for salinity anomaly indicates that ocean salinity has limited impact on ocean near-surface stratification and thus minimal feedback effect on the warming of Ningaloo Niño.

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Arthur N. Samel, Wei-Chyung Wang, and Xin-Zhong Liang

Abstract

Yearly variations in the observed initial and final dates of heavy, persistent monsoon rainband precipitation across China are quantified. The development of a semiobjective analysis that identifies these values also makes it possible to calculate annual rainband duration and total rainfall. Relationships between total rainband precipitation and the Eurasian circulation are then determined. This research is designed such that observed rainband characteristics can be used in future investigations to evaluate GCM simulations.

Normalized daily precipitation time series are analyzed between 1951 and 1990 for 85 observation stations to develop criteria that describe general rainband characteristics throughout China. Rainfall is defined to be “heavy” if the daily value at a given location is greater than 1.5% of the annual mean total. Heavy precipitation is then shown to be “persistent” and is thus identified with the rainband when the 1.5% threshold is exceeded at least 6 times in a 25-day period. Finally, rainband initial (final) dates are defined to immediately follow (precede) a minimum period of 5 consecutive days with no measurable precipitation. A semiobjective analysis based on the above definitions and rainband climatology is then applied to the time series to determine annual initial and final dates.

Analysis application produces results that closely correspond to the systematic pattern observed across China, where the rainband arrives in the south during May, advances to the Yangtze River valley in June, and then to the north in July. Rainband duration (i.e., final − initial + 1) is approximately 30–40 days while total rainfall decreases from south to north. A significant positive correlation is found between total rainfall and duration interannual variability, where increased rainband precipitation corresponds to initial (final) dates that are anomalously early (late). No clear trends are identified except over north China, where both duration and total rainfall decrease substantially after 1967.

The Eurasian sea level pressure and 500-hPa height fields are then correlated with total rainfall over south China, the Yangtze River valley, and north China to identify statistically significant relationships. Results indicate that precipitation amount is influenced by the interaction of several circulation features. Total rainfall increases over south China when the surface Siberian high ridges to the south and is overrun by warm moist air aloft. Yangtze River valley precipitation intensifies when westward expansion of the subtropical high along with strengthening of the Siberian high and monsoon low cause moisture advection, upward motion, and the thermal gradient along the Mei-Yu front to increase. North China total rainfall increases in response to intense heating over the landmass, westward ridging of the subtropical high, and greater moisture transport over the region.

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Aiwen Lin, Hongji Zhu, Lunche Wang, Wei Gong, and Ling Zou

Abstract

Measurements of air temperature and precipitation at 35 stations in Hubei Province, China, during 1962–2011 are used to investigate the regional climate change. There is an increasing trend for observed air temperature (0.23°C decade−1), which is slightly higher than that from multiple model simulations/predictions [phase 5 of CMIP (CMIP5) datasets] (0.16°C decade−1). The observed precipitation increases at the rate of 11.4 mm decade−1, while the CMIP5 results indicate a much lower decreasing trend (0.8 mm decade−1) in this region. To examine the ecological responses to the climate changes in Hubei Province, annual gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) products during 2000–10 and leaf area index (LAI) products during 1981–2011 are also analyzed. It is discovered that GPP, NPP, and LAI increase at the rate of 1.8 TgC yr−1 yr−1, 1.1 TgC yr−1 yr−1, and 0.14 m2 m−2 decade−1, respectively. A linear model is further used to conduct the correlation analyses between climatic parameters (i.e., air temperature and precipitation) and ecological indicators (i.e., GPP, NPP, and LAI). The results indicate that the air temperature has a significant positive correlation with LAI (R 2 = 0.311) and GPP (R 2 = 0.189); precipitation is positively correlated with NPP (R 2 = 0.209). Thus, it is concluded that the air temperature exerts a stronger effect on the ecosystem than precipitation in Hubei Province over the past decades.

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Meilin Zhu, Tandong Yao, Wei Yang, Baiqing Xu, and Xiaojun Wang

Abstract

Accurate evaluations of incoming longwave radiation (L in) parameterization have practical implications for glacier and river runoff changes in high-mountain regions of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). To identify potential means of accurately predicting spatiotemporal variations in L in, 13 clear-sky parameterizations combined with 10 cloud corrections for all-sky atmospheric emissivity were evaluated at five sites in high-mountain regions of the TP through temporal and spatial parameter transfer tests. Most locally calibrated parameterizations for clear-sky and all-sky conditions performed well when applied to the calibration site. The best parameterization at five sites is Dilley and O’Brien’s A model combined with Sicart et al.’s A for cloud-correction-incorporated relative humidity. The performance of parameter transferability in time is better than that in space for the same all-sky parameterizations. The performance of parameter transferability in space presents spatial discrepancies. In addition, all all-sky parameterizations show a decrease in performance with increasing altitude regardless of whether the parameters of all-sky parameterizations were recalibrated by local conditions or transferred from other study sites. This may be attributable to the difference between screen-level air temperature and the effective atmospheric boundary layer temperature and to different cloud-base heights. Nevertheless, such worse performance at higher altitudes is likely to change because of terrain, underlying surfaces, and wind systems, among other factors. The study also describes possible spatial characteristics of L in and its driving factors by reviewing the few studies about L in for the mountain regions of the TP.

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William J. Gutowski Jr., David S. Gutzler, and Wei-Chyung Wang

Abstract

We examine surface energy balances simulated by three general circulation models for current climatic boundary conditions and for an atmosphere with twice current levels of CO2. Differences between model simulations provide a measure of uncertainty in the prediction of surface temperature in a double-CO2 climate, and diagnosis of the energy balance suggests the radiative and thermodynamic processes responsible for these differences. The scale dependence of the surface energy balance is examined by averaging over a hierarchy of spatial domains ranging from the entire globe to regions encompassing just a few model grid points.

Upward and downward longwave fluxes are the dominant terms in the global-average balance for each model and climate. The models product nearly the same global-average surface temperature in their current climate simulations, so their upward longwave fluxes are nearly the same, but in the global-average balance their downward longwave fluxes, absorbed solar radiation, and sensible and latent heat fluxes have intermodel discrepancies that are larger than respective flux changes associated with doubling CO2. Despite the flux discrepancies, the globally averaged surface flux changes associated with CO2 doubling are qualitatively consistent among the models, suggesting that the basic large-scale mechanisms of greenhouse warming are not very sensitive to the precise surface balance of heat occurring in a model's current climate simulation.

The net longwave flux at the surface has small spatial variability, so global-average discrepancies in surface longwave fluxes are also manifested in the regional-scale balances. For this reason, increasing horizontal resolution will not improve the consistency of regional-scale climate simulations in these models unless discrepancies in global-average longwave radiation are resolved. Differences between models in simulating effects of moisture in the atmosphere and in the ground appear to be an important cause of differences in surface energy budgets on all scales.

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Chuan Jiang Huang, Wei Wang, and Rui Xin Huang

Abstract

The circulation in the equatorial Pacific Ocean is studied in a series of numerical experiments based on an isopycnal coordinate model. The model is subject to monthly mean climatology of wind stress and surface thermohaline forcing. In response to decadal variability in the diapycnal mixing coefficient, sea surface temperature and other properties of the circulation system oscillate periodically. The strongest sea surface temperature anomaly appears in the geographic location of Niño-3 region with the amplitude on the order of 0.5°C, if the model is subject to a 30-yr sinusoidal oscillation in diapycnal mixing coefficient that varies between 0.03 × 10−4 and 0.27 × 10−4 m2 s−1. Changes in diapycnal mixing coefficient of this amplitude are within the bulk range consistent with the external mechanical energy input in the global ocean, especially when considering the great changes of tropical cyclones during the past decades. Thus, time-varying diapycnal mixing associated with changes in wind energy input into the ocean may play a nonnegligible role in decadal climate variability in the equatorial circulation and climate.

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Rui Wang, Xin Yan, Zhenguo Niu, and Wei Chen

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Water surface temperature is a direct indication of climate change. However, it is not clear how China’s inland waters have responded to climate change in the past using a consistent method on a national scale. In this study, we used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from 2000 to 2015 to study the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of water surface temperature in China using the wavelet transform method. The results showed the following: 1) the freezing date of China inland water has shown a significant delaying trend during the past 16 years with an average rate of −1.5 days yr−1; 2) the shift of the 0°C isotherm position of surface water across China has clear seasonal changes, which first moved eastward about 25° and northward about 15°, and then gradually moved back after the year 2009; 3) during the past 16 years, the 0°C isotherm of China’s surface water has gradually moved north by about 0.09° in the latitude direction and east by about 1° in the longitude direction; and 4) the interannual variation of water surface temperature in 17 lakes of China showed a similar fluctuation trend that increased before 2010, and then decreased. The El Niño and La Niña around 2010 could have impacts on the turning point of the annual variation of water surface temperature. This study validated the response of China’s inland surface water to global climate change and improved the understanding of the wetland environment’s response to climate change.

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