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Zesheng Chen
,
Zhenning Li
,
Yan Du
,
Zhiping Wen
,
Renguang Wu
, and
Shang-Ping Xie

Abstract

This study examines the climate response to a sea surface temperature (SST) warming imposed over the southwest tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) in a coupled ocean–atmosphere model. The results indicate that the southwest TIO SST warming can remotely modulate the atmospheric circulation over the western North Pacific Ocean (WNP) via interbasin air–sea interaction during early boreal summer. The southwest TIO SST warming induces a “C shaped” wind response with northeasterly and northwesterly anomalies over the north and south TIO, respectively. The northeasterly wind anomalies contribute to the north TIO SST warming via a positive wind–evaporation–SST (WES) feedback after the Asian summer monsoon onset. In June, the easterly wind response extends into the WNP, inducing an SST cooling by WES feedback on the background trade winds. Both the north TIO SST warming and the WNP SST cooling contribute to an anomalous anticyclonic circulation (AAC) over the WNP. The north TIO SST warming, WNP SST cooling, and AAC constitute an interbasin coupled mode called the Indo-western Pacific Ocean capacitor (IPOC), and the southwest TIO SST warming could be a trigger for IPOC. While the summertime southwest TIO SST warming is often associated with antecedent El Niño, the warming in 2020 seems to be related to extreme Indian Ocean dipole during the autumn of 2019. The strong southwest TIO SST warming seems to partly explain the strong summer AAC of 2020 over the WNP even without a strong antecedent El Niño.

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Ping Zhao
,
Song Yang
,
Renguang Wu
,
Zhiping Wen
,
Junming Chen
, and
Huijun Wang

Abstract

The authors have identified an interannual relationship between Asian tropospheric temperature and the North Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) during summer (May–September) and discussed the associated features of atmospheric circulation over the Atlantic–Eurasian region. When tropospheric temperature is high (low) over Asia, positive (negative) SST anomalies appear in the extratropical North Atlantic. This relationship is well supported by the changes in background atmospheric circulation and ocean–atmosphere–land thermodynamic processes. When heat transfer from the land surface to the atmosphere over Asia strengthens, local tropospheric temperature increases and positive temperature anomalies propagate westward from Asia to the North Atlantic, leading to an increase in summer tropospheric temperature over the Atlantic–Eurasian region. Accordingly, a deep anomalous ridge occurs over the extratropical North Atlantic Ocean, with low-level southerly anomalies over the western portion of the ocean. Sensitivity experiments with climate models show that the interannual variations of the North Atlantic–Eurasian atmospheric circulation may not be forced by the extratropical Atlantic SST. Instead, experiments with changing Asian land surface heating capture the above observed features of atmospheric circulation anomalies, westward propagation of tropospheric anomalies, and Atlantic SST anomalies. The consistency between the observational and model results indicates a possible impact of Asian land heating on the development of atmospheric circulation and SST anomalies over the Atlantic–Eurasian region.

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Shihua Liu
,
Sihua Huang
,
Yanke Tan
,
Zhiping Wen
,
Xiaodan Chen
, and
Yuanyuan Guo

Abstract

Previous studies have pointed out that the tropical easterly jet (TEJ) core varies longitudinally or latitudinally. Whether there is a linkage between longitudinal and latitudinal variations of the TEJ core remains unclear. We found that, on the interannual time scale, the northward (southward) movement of the TEJ core is typically accompanied by a westward (eastward) shift, characterized by a noticeable northwest–southeast (NW–SE) displacement. This NW–SE shift is most evident in July. A locational index is defined to capture this shift by the difference of area-averaged 200-hPa zonal winds between the western Arabian Sea (AS) and the southern tip of the Indian Peninsula. Observations and numerical simulations demonstrated that the northwestward-shifted (southeastward-shifted) TEJ core is caused by the joint and individual influences from the enhanced (suppressed) convective activities over the eastern AS and suppressed (enhanced) convective activities over the northern Bay of Bengal–South China Sea (BOB–SCS). Enhanced (suppressed) convective activities over the eastern AS can induce upper-tropospheric divergence (convergence) and anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulations to the northwest of the convection, leading to anomalous easterly (westerly) over the western AS. The suppressed (enhanced) convective activities over the northern BOB–SCS can further facilitate the northwestward (southeastward) shift through inducing anomalous cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation centering at the BOB and the associated anomalous westerly (easterly) over the southern tip of the Indian Peninsula. The NW–SE shift of the TEJ core may have an implication for the change in the area of the intense rainfall in South Asia.

Significance Statement

The purpose of this study is to explore the linkage between the zonal and meridional variations of the core of the tropical easterly jet (TEJ) and its underlying mechanisms. We found that the TEJ core features a pronounced northwest–southeast shift and this phenomenon only occurs in July. Thus, we defined a locational index to depict this unique characteristic and reveal its relationship with the anomalous convective activities over the eastern Arabian Sea and the northern Bay of Bengal–South China Sea. These results may help improve our understanding of the characteristics and mechanisms of the variations of the TEJ core.

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