Search Results

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 68 items for

  • Author or Editor: Charles F. Brooks x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
CHARLES F. BROOKS

Abstract

During the past four years the Gulf Stream has been subjected to investigation by sea-water thermographs on crossing ships. Details of temperature, including alternating masses of warmer and cooler water, diurnal ranges of temperature, and rapid changes in distribution, have been written on the thermograms to form an amazingly complex picture.

The thermograph is a mercury-in-steel bulb and capillary type, the thermal element being fixed in the intake pipe through which large volumes of water from several feet below the surface are continually pumped to the condensers.

An instrument of this sort installed in 1928 on the Peninsular & Occidental steamship Henry M. Flagler, one of the three Key West-to-Habana car ferries, provides the temperature record for one round trip daily while the ship is in operation. The south-bound trip gives a night profile and the northbound a daytime one. From night to day in sunny quiet weather the sea temperature at the surface rises 3° or 4° F. and at a depth of 6 feet about 2°. In windy weather the diurnal range is reduced by stirring to 1° or less.

The summer profile is characteristically warmer in the north than in the south, while the temperature of Key West Harbor stands out several degrees above the Gulf Stream. A band of cool water is almost always traversed within a mile of the Cuban shore, apparently where swell and current striking the steeply sloping bottom bring cool water to the surface. Similar cool water often occurs likewise at the margin of shoal water south of Key West. The winter profile is usually 2° or more warmer in the south than in the north portion of the straits. A narrow zone of probably upwelling water several degrees cooler than on either side usually divides the warmer water from the cooler. This boundary shifts many miles with wind and other effects that bring at one time more water direct from the Caribbean and at another time from the Gulf. Great variations sometimes occur in the course of a few hours.

Storms, chiefly through their stirring action, reduce the surface temperatures by 1° or more. Strong cold winds have an even greater effect than hurricanes, for they chill the water considerably as well as mix the warm surface layer with the cooler substrata.

Full access
Charles F. Brooks
Full access
Charles F. Brooks
Full access
Charles F. Brooks
Full access
CHARLES F. BROOKS

Abstract

No Abstract Available.

Full access
CHARLES F. BROOKS

Abstract

By means of data collected from numerous sources relative to meteorological phenomena observed in flying, an attempt is made in this paper to explain on a scientific basis, for the benefit of the aviator, the phenomena he has observed, and at the same time to gather from these experiences such facts as are of value to the meteorologist in amplifying his knowledge of what actually exists in the upper air.

The disturbances of the air due to daytime convection are one of the prime sources of bumpiness. Especially on hot summer days do strong, rapidly rising currents of air penetrate to great altitudes and, where encountered, jolt the aeroplane. Where the cooler air is descending, the effect is similar to that of falling into a “hole.” The height to which the effects of surface roughness extend when the wind is blowing depends upon the speed of the surface wind and the height, of the obstruction.

In the free air, aviators' observations show how the layers of air flow over one another, the interface sometimes being marked by clouds and sometimes entirely invisible. At such levels are encountered billows or waves, and considerable difficulty is sometimes experienced in flying through such regions. Clouds, rain, and fog all contribute to the discomfort and danger of flying.

Perhaps the most interesting are the experiences in the thunder-storm and the up-and-down winds which accompany such storms. As the driving wedge of cold air at the surface advances ahead of the storm, the air into which the storm is moving is forced upward. The maximum turbulence is found in the region of the squall cloud, but the force of the rising air ahead of the storm is sufficient to carry up airplanes considerably, in spite of the efforts of the pilots to keep the nose of the plane down. The dangers from lightning and hail, are also quite as important as those from the capricious winds.

Full access
CHARLES F. BROOKS

Abstract

No Abstract Available.

Full access
Charles F. Brooks
Full access
CHARLES F. BROOKS

Abstract

No Abstract Available.

Full access
Charles F. Brooks
Full access