Search Results

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 76 items for

  • Author or Editor: Chun-Chieh Wu x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Guanghua Chen
,
Chun-Chieh Wu
, and
Yi-Hsuan Huang

Abstract

The effects of convective and stratiform diabatic processes in the near-core region on tropical cyclone (TC) structure and intensity change are examined by artificially modifying the convective and stratiform heating/cooling between 40- and 80-km radii. Sensitivity experiments show that the absence of convective heating in the annulus can weaken TC intensity and decrease the inner-core size. The increased convective heating generates a thick and polygonal eyewall, while the storm intensifies more gently than that in the control run. The removal of stratiform heating can slow down TC intensification with a moderate intensity, whereas the doubling of stratiform heating has little effect on the TC evolution compared to the control run. The halved stratiform cooling facilitates TC rapid intensification and a compact inner-core structure with the spiral rainbands largely suppressed. With the stratiform cooling doubled, the storm terminates intensification and eventually develops a double-eyewall-like structure accompanied by the significantly outward expansion of the inner-core size. The removal of both stratiform heating and cooling generates the strongest storm with the structure and intensity similar to those in the experiment with stratiform cooling halved. When both stratiform heating and cooling are doubled, the storm first decays rapidly, followed by the vertical connection of the updrafts at mid- to upper levels in the near-core region and at lower levels in the collapsed eyewall, which reinvigorates the eyewall convection but with a large outward slope.

Full access
Yi-Hsuan Huang
,
Chun-Chieh Wu
, and
Michael T. Montgomery

Abstract

This is a follow-up work to two prior studies examining secondary eyewall formation (SEF) in Typhoon Sinlaku (2008). This study shows that, in the SEF region, the majority of the elevated winds are supergradient. About two-thirds of the rapid increase in tangential wind tendencies immediately prior to SEF are attributed to agradient wind tendencies. This suggests the importance of nonlinear, unbalanced dynamical processes in SEF in addition to the classical axisymmetric balanced response to forcings of heating and momentum. In the SEF region, analyses show two distinct responsible processes for the increasing azimuthal tangential wind in two vertical intervals. Within the boundary inflow layer, the competing effect between the mean radial influx of absolute vorticity and deceleration caused by surface friction and subgrid diffusion yields a secondary maximum of positive tendency. Analyses further demonstrate the major impact of the mean radial influx of absolute vorticity on SEF. Above the boundary inflow layer, the vertical advection acts to vertically extend the tangential wind jet via the lofting of the enhanced tangential momentum farther upward. The roles of the nonlinear unbalanced dynamics in these two processes are discussed in this paper. From a Lagrangian perspective, the persistently increasing agradient force outweighs the frictional loss, effectively decelerating boundary layer inflowing air across the SEF region. This explains the sharpening of the radial gradient of boundary layer inflow, which is shown to be responsible for the buildup of a zone with concentrated boundary layer convergence. The previously proposed unbalanced dynamical pathway to SEF is elaborated upon and supported by the current results and discussion.

Full access
Chun-Chieh Wu
,
Ruifen Zhan
,
Yi Lu
, and
Yuqing Wang

Abstract

As synoptic storms, tropical cyclones (TCs) are highly nonlinear systems resulting from multiscale interactions. In particular, the genesis of TCs involves complex nonlinear processes, exhibiting strong internal variability in climate model simulations. This study attempts to examine such internal variability of dynamically downscaled TCs over the western North Pacific Ocean based on four simulations of 20 typhoon seasons (1982−2001) initialized on 4 successive days using the International Pacific Research Center (IPRC) Regional Atmospheric Model (iRAM). The results show that on both seasonal and interannual time scales, the initial conditions significantly affect the downscaled TC activity, with the largest internal variability occurring in August on the seasonal time scale. The spreads between any of the individual simulations and the ensemble mean are comparable to and in some circumstances greater than the interannual variation of the observed TC frequency. The internal variability of the downscaled TC activity is found to be insensitive to the amplitude and the pattern of the initial perturbations. However, day-to-day model solutions are strongly affected by the internal variability. As a result, the development of nonlinear atmospheric instabilities significantly modulates the genesis and development of the TC-like vortices, leading to the large internal variability of the downscaled TC activity. In addition to the traditional initial value problem, criteria (in particular, threshold values) used in the TC detection contribute equally to the internal variability of the downscaled TCs in the simulations. Consistent with earlier studies, the results from this study also show that the ensemble mean provides the better downscaled information on seasonal and interannual frequencies of TC genesis and occurrence.

Full access
Tsung-Yung Lee
,
Chun-Chieh Wu
, and
Rosimar Rios-Berrios

Abstract

The impact of low-level flow (LLF) direction on the intensification of intense tropical cyclones under moderate deep-layer shear is investigated based on idealized numerical experiments. The background flow profiles are constructed by varying the LLF direction with the same moderate deep-layer shear. When the maximum surface wind speed of the simulation without background flow reaches 70 kt (36 m s−1), the background flow profiles are imposed. After a weakening period in the first 12 h, the members with upshear-left-pointing LLF (fast-intensifying group) intensify faster between 12 and 24 h than those members (slow-intensifying group) with downshear-right-pointing LLF. The fast-intensifying group experiences earlier development of inner-core structures after 12 h, such as potential vorticity below the midtroposphere, upper-level warm core, eyewall axisymmetrization, and radial moist entropy gradient, while the inner-core features of the slow-intensifying group remain relatively weak and asymmetric. The FI group experiences smaller tilt increase and stronger midlevel PV ring development. The upshear-left convection during 6–12 h is responsible for the earlier development of the inner core by reducing ventilation, providing axisymmetric heating, and benefiting the eyewall development. The LLF of the fast-intensifying group enhances surface heat fluxes in the downshear side, resulting in higher energy supply to the upshear-left convection from the boundary layer. In all, this study provides new insights on the impact of LLF direction on intense storms under moderate shear by modulating the surface heat fluxes and eyewall convection.

Full access
Li-Zhi Shen
,
Chun-Chieh Wu
, and
Falko Judt

Abstract

This study attempts to understand how surface heat fluxes in different storm regions affect tropical cyclone (TC) size. The Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) Model (version 3.5.1) is used to simulate Typhoon Megi (2016). A series of numerical experiments are carried out, including a control simulation and several sensitivity experiments with surface heat fluxes suppressed in different TC regions [to mimic the reduction of the wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE) feedback in the inner and/or outer core]. The results show that with surface heat fluxes suppressed in the entire domain, the TC tends to be smaller. Meanwhile, the TC size is more sensitive to the surface heat flux change in the outer core than to that in the inner core. Suppressing surface heat fluxes can weaken the rainbands around the suppressed area, which in turn slows down the secondary circulation. When the surface heat flux is suppressed in the inner-core region, the weakening of the secondary circulation associated with the diminished inner rainbands is limited to the inner-core region, and only slightly affects the absolute angular momentum import from the outer region, thus having negligible impact on TC size. However, suppression of surface heat fluxes in the outer-core region leads to less active outer rainbands and a more substantial weakening of secondary circulation. This results in less absolute momentum import from the outer region and in turn a smaller TC.

Full access
Jae-Deok Lee
,
Chun-Chieh Wu
, and
Kosuke Ito

Abstract

This study examines the diurnal variation of the convective area and eye size of 30 rapidly intensifying tropical cyclones (RI TCs) that occurred in the western North Pacific from 2015 to 2017 utilizing Himawari-8 satellite imagery. The convective area can be divided into the active convective area (ACA), mixed phase, and inactive convective area (IACA) based on specific thresholds of brightness temperature. In general, ACA tends to develop vigorously from late afternoon to early the next morning, while mixed phase and IACA develop during the day. This diurnal pattern indicates the potential for ACA to evolve into mixed phase or IACA over time. From the 30 samples, RI TCs tend to have at least a single-completed diurnal signal of ACA inside the radius of maximum wind (RMW) during the rapidly intensifying period. In the same period, the RMW also contracts significantly. Meanwhile, more intense storms such as those of category 4 or 5 hurricane intensity are apt to have continuous ACA inside the RMW and maintain eyewall convective clouds. These diurnal patterns of the ACA could vary depending on the impact of large-scale environments such as vertical wind shear, ocean heat content, environmental mesoscale convection, and terrain. The linear regression analysis shows that from the tropical storm stage, RI commences after a slow intensification period, which enhances both the primary circulation and eyewall convective cloud. Finally, after the eye structure appears in satellite imagery, its size changes inversely to the diurnal variation of the convective activity (e.g., the eye size becomes larger during the daytime).

Free access
Kuo-Feng Chang
,
Chun-Chieh Wu
, and
Kosuke Ito

Abstract

This work investigates the rapid weakening (RW) processes of Typhoon Trami (2018) by examining sea surface temperature (SST) cooling based on air–sea coupled simulations during typhoon passage. The cold wake and Trami’s RW occurred as the storm was moving at a very slow translation speed. A marked structural change of Trami is found in a three-dimensional ocean-coupled model experiment during the RW stage, in which the convective clouds and convective bursts in the inner core of the simulated TC dramatically decrease, resulting in the loss of diabatic heating and leading to weakening of the TC. In the simulation, the enthalpy flux dramatically decreases in the inner core because of the SST cooling during the RW period, while a stable boundary layer (SBL) is formed in the TC’s inner-core region. The expanding SBL coverage stabilizes the atmosphere and suppresses convection in the inner core, leading to weakening of the storm. A more stable atmosphere in the cold wake is also identified by the inner-core dropsonde data from the field program of Tropical Cyclones-Pacific Asian Research Campaign for Improvement of Intensity Estimations/Forecasts. The strong SST cooling also changes the evolution of Trami’s eyewall replacement cycle (ERC) and limits the eyewall contraction after the ERC.

Free access
Chun-Chieh Wu
,
Shin-Gan Chen
,
Shih-Chieh Lin
,
Tzu-Hsiung Yen
, and
Ting-Chen Chen

Abstract

Using special data from the field campaign of 2008 and an ensemble Kalman filter–based vortex initialization method, this study explores the impact of different track clusters categorized under the ensemble simulations of Typhoon Sinlaku (2008) on the associated precipitation. In particular, the distinct pattern of cumulative frequencies in the 28 members is identified to correspond to three types of track clusters. The simulation integrated from the initial ensemble mean slightly underestimates the maximum amount of the observed rainfall in central Taiwan by about 30%. The quantitative evaluation based on the equitable threat score indicates that members with tracks close to the best track produce more consistent rainfall distribution in northern Taiwan although their cumulative frequencies are underestimated. For members with southwestward-biased tracks, although the cumulative frequencies are closer to the observation, the simulated rainfall pattern is less consistent with the observation in northern Taiwan and the maximum rainfall amount is overestimated. The comparison of rainfall simulation during landfall between two representative members shows that the distinct differences in the rainfall amount and distribution are primarily associated with the track differences on the windward side of the mountain. With a finer horizontal grid resolution, the rainfall accumulation becomes greater as a result of the enhancement of updraft from the better-resolved topography, yet the cumulative frequency stays nearly unchanged. Based on ensemble simulations, this study highlights that the uncertainties in rainfall patterns and amounts can be assessed from ensemble track variations, thus providing better insights into the rainfall predictability associated with typhoons near Taiwan.

Full access
Iam-Fei Pun
,
I.-I. Lin
,
Chun-Chi Lien
, and
Chun-Chieh Wu

Abstract

Supertyphoon Megi (2010) left behind two very contrasting SST cold-wake cooling patterns between the Philippine Sea (1.5°C) and the South China Sea (7°C). Based on various radii of radial winds, the authors found that the size of Megi doubles over the South China Sea when it curves northward. On average, the radius of maximum wind (RMW) increased from 18.8 km over the Philippine Sea to 43.1 km over the South China Sea; the radius of 64-kt (33 m s−1) typhoon-force wind (R64) increased from 52.6 to 119.7 km; the radius of 50-kt (25.7 m s−1) damaging-force wind (R50) increased from 91.8 to 210 km; and the radius of 34-kt (17.5 m s−1) gale-force wind (R34) increased from 162.3 to 358.5 km. To investigate the typhoon size effect, the authors conduct a series of numerical experiments on Megi-induced SST cooling by keeping other factors unchanged, that is, typhoon translation speed and ocean subsurface thermal structure. The results show that if it were not for Megi’s size increase over the South China Sea, the during-Megi SST cooling magnitude would have been 52% less (reduced from 4° to 1.9°C), the right bias in cooling would have been 60% (or 30 km) less, and the width of the cooling would have been 61% (or 52 km) less, suggesting that typhoon size is as important as other well-known factors on SST cooling. Aside from the size effect, the authors also conduct a straight-track experiment and find that the curvature of Megi contributes up to 30% (or 1.2°C) of cooling over the South China Sea.

Full access
Chun-Chieh Wu
,
Shun-Nan Wu
,
Ho-Hsuan Wei
, and
Sergio F. Abarca

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of diabatic heating in tropical cyclone ring structure evolution. A full-physics three-dimensional modeling framework is used to compare the results with two-dimensional modeling approaches and to point to limitations of the barotropic instability theory in predicting the storm vorticity structure configuration. A potential vorticity budget analysis reveals that diabatic heating is a leading-order term and that it is largely offset by potential vorticity advection. Sawyer–Eliassen integrations are used to diagnose the secondary circulation (and corresponding vorticity tendency) forced by prescribed heating. These integrations suggest that diabatic heating forces a secondary circulation (and associated vorticity tendency) that helps maintain the original ring structure in a feedback process. Sensitivity experiments of the Sawyer–Eliassen model reveal that the magnitude of the vorticity tendency is proportional to that of the prescribed heating, indicating that diabatic heating plays a critical role in adjusting and maintaining the eyewall ring.

Full access