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P. Krishna Rao and Jay S. Winston

Abstract

Several samples of infrared radiation measurements in the 8–13 micron water-vapor “window” made by TIROS II are studied in relation to conventionally observed information on pressure systems, cloudiness and temperature These cases demonstrate further the synoptic capabilities, as well as some of the limitations, of these data for cloud detection; determination of cloud-top height; and observation of spatial gradients and temporal changes in the temperature of water-, land-, and snow-covered surfaces.

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JAY S. WINSTON and P. KRISHNA RAO

Abstract

Daily composite Northern Hemisphere charts of outgoing long-wave radiation were derived from TIROS II measurements for about 25 days in late November and December 1960. Although data coverage was incomplete and variable each day, both latitudinal and overall daily averages of long-wave radiation were obtained. Large-scale temporal variations in the long-wave radiation are observed and are found to be generally related to temporal variations in kinetic and available potential energy over the Northern Hemisphere. Examination of the radiation latitudinally for various stages of an energy cycle that occurred at this time shows that the outgoing radiation, particularly at lower latitudes, decreased as westerly flow increased at lower latitudes. An average latitudinal profile of the TIROS long-wave data for all days studied shows rather good agreement with previous estimates made by investigators of the atmospheric heat budget.

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William H. Klein and Jay S. Winston

The movement of the Atlantic hurricane of September 11–20, 1947, into the Gulf of Mexico rather than up the Atlantic Coast, is attributed to dynamic anticyclogenesis over the eastern United States. An attempt is made to explain this anticyclogenesis by the transfer of energy downstream from the mid-Pacific at a rate considerably greater than the speed of individual air particles. The motion and change in intensity of 700 mb trough and ridge systems are discussed in terms of constant absolute vorticity, horizontal temperature advection, and the process of confluence. It is concluded that the large-scale features of the hemispheric circulation are of great importance for short-range, as well as for extended, weather forecasting.

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DONALD A. HAINES and JAY S. WINSTON

Abstract

Monthly mean values of meridional transport of sensible heat by the atmosphere in the layer 850-500 mb. over the Northern Hemisphere poleward from the subtropics are analyzed for a period of 3½ years. The latitudinal values of this transport exhibit an annual cycle which is characterized by a rapid buildup from August to November and a slightly less rapid decline from February to June. Dissimilarities among the transport patterns for the same calendar months in different years are generally small; however, the month of December has marked variability. The longitudinal makeup of heat transport across latitude 45° N. in the cold season is dominated by three contributing regions which are associated with two of the three major waves observed in monthly mean flow patterns. The most sharply defined region of contribution to the heat transport across latitude 45° N. is associated with cold air moving southward to the rear of the trough line along the east coast of Asia. At 60° N., however, pronounced heat transport zones are generally absent except for the occasional appearance of a maximum over the eastern Atlantic and western Europe.

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CLAYTON E. JENSEN, JAY S. WINSTON, and V. RAY TAYLOR

Abstract

The technique of stepwise multiple regression is applied to 45 days of data in establishing functional relations between the heights of the 500-mb. surface and TIROS IV long-wave radiation data during the period March to June, 1962. Twenty-six points were selected for height specification in the general area of the eastern Pacific and the North American Continent, Sixty points were selected as a source of radiation “predictors” in a larger area that not only encompasses most of the 26 height, points but extends farther westward across the Pacific. Sample charts show the correlation fields that result when the height values at, each point are correlated with the radiation data at each of 60 points. The screening process that selects the best, predictors is arbitrarily stopped at preset numbers of predictors. The resulting regression equations are evaluated on both dependent and independent samples. Even though the independent results are not outstanding for this particular sample, the method itself appears to offer promise for height and height contour specification over areas where direct measurements of heights are sparse or missing entirely.

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ARTHUR F. KRUEGER, JAY S. WINSTON, and DONALD A. HAINES

Abstract

Computations of atmospheric energy and several of its transformation terms from data extending back to October 1958 have been carried out using the National Meteorological Center's ADP analyses. From these calculations the annual variation of the atmosphere's energy cycle has been estimated. In addition, some yearly differences for the colder half of the year are described.

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