Search Results

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 68 items for

  • Author or Editor: Jing Zhang x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Juanzhen Sun
,
Ying Zhang
,
Junmei Ban
,
Jing-Shan Hong
, and
Chung-Yi Lin

Abstract

Radar and surface rainfall observations are two sources of operational data crucial for heavy rainfall prediction. Their individual values on improving convective forecasting through data assimilation have been examined in the past using convection-permitting numerical models. However, the benefit of their simultaneous assimilations has not yet been evaluated. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that, using a 4D-Var data assimilation system with a microphysical scheme, these two data sources can be assimilated simultaneously and the combined assimilation of radar data and estimated rainfall data from radar reflectivity and surface network can lead to improved short-term heavy rainfall prediction. In our study, a combined data assimilation experiment is compared with a rainfall-only and a radar-only (with or without reflectivity) experiments for a heavy rainfall event occurring in Taiwan during the passage of a mei-yu system. These experiments are conducted by applying the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) 4D-Var data assimilation system with a 20-min time window aiming to improve 6-h convective heavy rainfall prediction. Our results indicate that the rainfall data assimilation contributes significantly to the analyses of humidity and temperature whereas the radar data assimilation plays a crucial role in wind analysis, and further, combining the two data sources results in reasonable analyses of all three fields by eliminating large, unphysical analysis increments from the experiments of assimilating individual data only. The results also show that the combined assimilation improves forecasts of heavy rainfall location and intensity of 6-h accumulated rainfall for the case studied.

Free access
Hui Wu
,
Bing Deng
,
Rui Yuan
,
Jun Hu
,
Jinghua Gu
,
Fang Shen
,
Jianrong Zhu
, and
Jing Zhang

Abstract

Measuring the transport of the Changjiang (also known as the Yangtze) River–derived buoyant coastal current, that is, the Min–Zhe Coastal Current, is of great importance for understanding the fate of terrestrial materials from this large river into the open ocean, but it is usually difficult to achieve because of the energetic tidal currents along the Chinese coast. In February 2012, a detiding cruise survey was carried out using the phase-averaging method. For the first time, this coastal current has been quantified with in situ data and has been shown to have a volume transport of 0.215 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) and a maximum surface velocity of ~50 cm s−1. The ratio between the volume transport of the buoyant coastal current and that of the Changjiang is O(10). Freshwater transport by the buoyant coastal current accounts for over 90% of the Changjiang River's discharge. Buoyancy and winds are both important in driving this current.

Full access
Yuyao Cao
,
Qinghong Zhang
,
Juanzhen Sun
,
Rumeng Li
,
Yaohai Huang
,
Jing Zhuang
,
Jun Xu
, and
Yun Chen

Abstract

Understanding when weather information is required by the public is essential for evaluating and improving user-oriented weather services. Because of the popularity of smartphones, most people can easily access weather information via smartphone applications. In this study, we analyzed usage data for the Moji Weather smartphone application in 2017 and 2018 and devised a demand index to determine how often the weather information was used by the public under different weather conditions. Using hourly observations of surface temperature, wind intensity, precipitation, and visibility, we quantified the relationship between the demand for weather information and weather conditions in different regions of China. In general, the demand index increased with increases in local hourly precipitation or surface wind intensity in all regions; however, there were notable regional differences in the increasing trends. Extreme hot weather was found to increase the demand index in Northern China, Xinjiang, and the Sichuan Basin while in Southern China it increased more in response to extreme cold weather. We quantified the relationships between the demand index and weather conditions by performing a polynomial regression analysis for each weather element and region. The high-demand thresholds were found to vary among regions, suggesting the need for customized weather services for users in different geographical regions. The study also revealed the contribution of weather warnings to weather information demand in two megacities and showed that warnings were effective for conveying information about weather-related risks.

Full access
Wanchun Zhang
,
Jianping Guo
,
Yucong Miao
,
Huan Liu
,
Yu Song
,
Zhang Fang
,
Jing He
,
Mengyun Lou
,
Yan Yan
,
Yuan Li
, and
Panmao Zhai

Abstract

Strongly influenced by thermodynamic stability, the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is key to the exchange of heat, momentum, and moisture between the ground surface and free troposphere. The PBL with different thermodynamic stability across the whole of China, however, is not yet well understood. In this study, the occurrence frequency and spatial distribution of the convective boundary layer (CBL), neutral boundary layer (NBL), and stable boundary layer (SBL) were systematically investigated, based on intensive summertime soundings launched at 1400 Beijing time (BJT) throughout China’s radiosonde network (CRN) for the period 2012 to 2016. Overall, the occurrences of CBL, NBL, and SBL account for 70%, 26%, and 4%, respectively, suggesting that CBL dominates in summer throughout China. In terms of the spatial pattern of PBL height, a prominent north–south gradient can be found with higher PBL height in northwest China. In addition, the PBL heights of CBL and NBL were found to be positively (negatively) associated with near-surface air temperature (humidity), whereas no apparent relationship was found for SBL. Furthermore, clouds tend to reduce the occurrence frequency, irrespective of PBL type. Roughly 70% of SBL cases occur under overcast conditions, much higher than those for NBL and CBL, indicating that clouds govern to some extent the occurrence of SBL. In contrast, except for the discernible changes in PBL height under overcast conditions relative to those under clear-sky conditions, the changes in PBL height under partly cloudy conditions are no more than 170 m for both NBL and CBL types.

Full access
Shaobo Sun
,
Baozhang Chen
,
Quanqin Shao
,
Jing Chen
,
Jiyuan Liu
,
Xue-jun Zhang
,
Huifang Zhang
, and
Xiaofeng Lin

Abstract

Land surface models (LSMs) are useful tools to estimate land evapotranspiration at a grid scale and for long-term applications. Here, the Community Land Model, version 4.0 (CLM4.0); Dynamic Land Model (DLM); and Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC) were driven with observation-based forcing datasets, and a multiple-LSM ensemble-averaged evapotranspiration (ET) product (LSMs-ET) was developed and its spatial–temporal variations were analyzed for the China landmass over the period 1979–2012. Evaluations against measurements from nine flux towers at site scale and surface water budget–based ET at regional scale showed that the LSMs-ET had good performance in most areas of China’s landmass. The intercomparisons between the ET estimates and the independent ET products from remote sensing and upscaling methods suggested that there were fairly consistent patterns between each dataset. The LSMs-ET produced a mean annual ET of 351.24 ± 10.7 mm yr−1 over 1979–2012, and its spatial–temporal variation analyses showed that (i) there was an overall significant ET increasing trend, with a value of 0.72 mm yr−1 (p < 0.01), and (ii) 36.01% of Chinese land had significant increasing trends, ranging from 1 to 9 mm yr−1, while only 6.41% of the area showed significant decreasing trends, ranging from −6.28 to −0.08 mm yr−1. Analyses of ET variations in each climate region clearly showed that the Tibetan Plateau areas were the main contributors to the overall increasing ET trends of China.

Full access
Hongyu Li
,
Qiang Zhang
,
Ping Yue
,
Liang Zhang
,
Xiaochen Niu
,
Hongli Zhang
,
Kaicheng Xing
,
Yuanyuan Jing
, and
Guofei Shang

Abstract

Investigating the response of land surface energy exchange to key climatic signals such as the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is essential for understanding the intensive interactions in the Earth system. This study focuses on the summer monsoon transition zone (SMTZ) in China, which has a climate rather sensitive to the EASM activity, and examined the response of land surface energy exchange over the SMTZ to summer monsoon activity. A flux evaluation of five reanalysis/modeling datasets indicates that JRA-55 (the Japanese 55-Year Reanalysis) reasonably represents interannual variations of surface heat fluxes over the SMTZ. The EASM activity is accurately identified in the SMTZ by introducing a monsoon temporal duration index (MTDI), which presents climate variations of summer rainfall and EASM activity better than commonly used summer monsoon indexes. Based on MTDI and long-term flux datasets, it was found that the interannual fluctuation of the EASM intensively controls surface energy partitioning and turbulent heat exchange but has a weak impact on radiative processes over the SMTZ. Furthermore, surface sensible and latent heat fluxes significantly responded to the influential period of the summer monsoon, exhibiting approximately quadratic/logarithmic relationships with the MTDI. More prominent interannual variabilities of turbulent heat fluxes were observed in weak summer monsoon years, during which an active interaction between surface energy exchange and a warming and drying climate occurred. An ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) analysis confirms that EASM activity dominates the quasi-biennial and multidecadal variations of turbulent heat fluxes over the SMTZ, which may be achieved by the transport of tropical quasi-biennial and Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) signals to the midlatitudes of East Asia. The expected intensification of summer monsoon activity in the future may induce acceleration of energy and hydrological cycle and exert a substantial impact on the availability of water and the ecosystem stability over the SMTZ.

Full access
Haihong Guo
,
Zhaohui Chen
,
Haiyuan Yang
,
Yu Long
,
Ruichen Zhu
,
Yueqi Zhang
,
Zhao Jing
, and
Chen Yang

Abstract

In this study, an effective method of estimating the volume transport of the Kuroshio Extension (KE) is proposed using surface geostrophic flow inferred from satellite altimetry and vertical stratification derived from climatological temperature/salinity (T/S) profiles. Based on velocity measurements by a subsurface mooring array across the KE, we found that the vertical structure of horizontal flow in this region is dominated by the barotropic and first baroclinic normal modes, which is commendably described by the leading mode of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the observed velocity profiles as well. Further analysis demonstrates that the projection coefficient of moored velocity onto the superimposed vertical normal mode can be represented by the surface geostrophic velocity as derived from satellite altimetry. Given this relationship, we proposed a dynamical method to estimate the volume transport across the KE jet, which is well verified with both ocean reanalysis and repeated hydrographic data. This finding implicates that, in the regions where the currents render quasi-barotropic structure, it takes only satellite altimetry observation and climatological T/S to estimate the volume transport across any section.

Significance Statement

The Kuroshio Extension (KE) plays an important role in the midlatitude North Pacific climate system. To better understand the KE dynamic and its influences, it is very important to estimate the KE transport. However, direct observation is very difficult in this area. Combining a subsurface mooring array and climatological temperature/salinity data, the vertical structure of the KE is explored in this study using mode decomposition methods. The relationship between the vertical structure of the zonal velocity and surface geostrophic flow observed by satellite altimetry in the KE region is further investigated. Based on this relationship, the KE transport can be well estimated by using satellite altimetry observation and historical hydrographic observation.

Restricted access
Yuhui Li
,
Yun Qiu
,
Jianyu Hu
,
Cherry Aung
,
Xinyu Lin
,
Chunsheng Jing
, and
Junpeng Zhang

ABSTRACT

Multisource satellite remote sensing data have been used to analyze the strong upwelling event off the southern coast of Sri Lanka in 2013 and its relationship with Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) events. The upwelling area in 2013 is 5.7 times larger than that in a normal year and lasts from June to August, with the peaks of the cooling anomaly reaching −1.5°C and the positive chlorophyll a concentration anomaly exceeding 3.1 mg m−3. In 2013, the negative unseasonable IOD (IODJJA) event enhances the southwest monsoon, while the blocking of the monsoon wind by the island results in a stronger westerly/northwesterly wind stress off the southern coast of Sri Lanka and a weaker westerly/northwesterly wind stress over the eastern Sri Lanka waters. This causes stronger offshore transport and positive Ekman pumping off the southern coast, forming a strong upwelling event there. Further analysis indicates that the interannual variability of the upwelling, as represented by a newly constructed index based on satellite observations, is primarily caused by the variations of local wind associated with the IOD. The upwelling off the southern coast of Sri Lanka weakens (strengthens) in the positive (negative) IOD years. However, an analysis based on 21 IOD events during 1982–2019 demonstrates that the effects of the three types of IOD events, including IODJJA, prolonged IOD (IODLONG), and normal IOD (IODSON), on the upwelling are different. Compared to the IODSON events, the IODJJA and IODLONG events tend to have stronger influences due to their earlier developing phases.

Full access
Yushan Qu
,
Shengpeng Wang
,
Zhao Jing
,
Yu Zhang
,
Hong Wang
, and
Lixin Wu

Abstract

Tropical Pacific quasi-decadal (TPQD) climate variability is characterized by quasi-decadal sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the central Pacific (CP). This low-frequency climate variability is suggested to influence extreme regional weather and substantially impact global climate patterns and associated socioeconomics through teleconnections. Previous studies mostly attributed the TPQD climate variability to basin-scale air–sea coupling processes. However, due to the coarse resolution of the majority of the observations and climate models, the role of subbasin-scale processes in modulating the TPQD climate variability is still unclear. Using a long-term high-resolution global climate model, we find that energetic small-scale motions with horizontal scales from tens to hundreds of kilometers (loosely referred to as equatorial submesoscale eddies) act as an important damping effect to retard the TPQD variability. During the positive TPQD events, compound increasing precipitation and warming SST in the equatorial Pacific intensifies the upper ocean stratification and weakens the temperature fronts along the Pacific cold tongue. This suppresses submesoscale eddy growth as well as their associated upward vertical heat transport by inhibiting baroclinic instability (BCI) and frontogenesis; conversely, during the negative TPQD events, the opposite is true. Using a series of coupled global climate models that participated in phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project with different oceanic resolutions, we show that the amplitude of the TPQD variability becomes smaller as the oceanic resolution becomes finer, providing evidence for the impacts of submesoscale eddies on damping the TPQD variability. Our study suggests that explicitly simulating equatorial submesoscale eddies is necessary for gaining a more robust understanding of low-frequency tropical climate variability.

Significance Statement

Submesoscale ocean eddies inhibit the development of quasi-decadal climate variability in the equatorial central Pacific, according to a high-resolution global climate simulation.

Open access
Xiangpeng Wang
,
Yan Du
,
Yuhong Zhang
,
Tianyu Wang
,
Minyang Wang
, and
Zhiyou Jing

Abstract

Subsurface eddies are a special type of oceanic eddy that display the maximum velocity in the subsurface layer. Based on field observations, a lens-shaped subsurface anticyclonic eddy (SAE) was detected in the northern South China Sea (SCS) in May 2021. The SAE was located between 20 and 200 m, with a shoaling of the seasonal thermocline and deepening of the main thermocline. Satellite images showed that the SAE exhibited positive sea level anomaly (SLA) and negative sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly. Eddy track indicated that this SAE originated from the Luzon Strait and was generated in the Kuroshio Loop Current (KLC) last winter. The evolution of the SAE was related to the anomalous water properties inside the eddy and the seasonal change of sea surface heat flux. In winter, the continuous surface cooling and Kuroshio intrusion led to a cold, salty core in the upper part of the anticyclonic eddy, which resulted in a subsurface-intensified structure through geostrophic adjustment. As the season changed from winter to spring, sea surface temperature increased. The lens-shaped structure was formed when the seasonal thermocline appeared near the surface that capped the winter well-mixed water inside the eddy. From 1993 to 2021, nearly half of the winter KLC shedding eddies (12/25) survived to late spring and evolved into subsurface lens-shaped structures. This result indicates that the transition of KLC shedding eddy to SAE is a common phenomenon in the northern SCS, which is potentially important for local air–sea interaction, heat–salt balance, and biogeochemical processes.

Significance Statement

Subsurface eddies are lens-shaped eddies with anomalous water properties in the subsurface layer. While such eddies have been reported in many regions of the World Ocean, they are poorly investigated in the SCS, especially the periodic subsurface eddies that appear in a fixed time frame with similar patterns and trajectories. This study reported a subsurface anticyclonic eddy (SAE) in the northern SCS and elucidated its generation and evolution processes. Statistical results confirm that this is a periodic SAE, which occurs nearly annually in late spring and evolves from the Kuroshio shedding eddy with seasonal changes. This study provides a new perspective on the evolution of subsurface eddies in the SCS and will benefit targeted observations in the future.

Free access