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WEATHER AND CIRCULATION OF AUGUST 1977

Record or Near Record Rainfall in the Midwest

Robert R. Dickson

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Robert R. Dickson

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Robert R. Dickson

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WEATI-IER AND CIRCULATION OF AUGUST 1974

Relief from Heat and Drought in the Central United States

Robert R. Dickson

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WEATHER AND CIRCULATION OF AUGUST 1975

Record Rainfall Over the Central Great Lakes

Robert R. Dickson

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Robert R. Dickson

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Robert R. Dickson

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Robert R. Dickson

Abstract

Satellite-augmented observations of tropical storm and hurricane frequencies in the southeastern North Pacific during recent Augusts (1966–1974) were compared to various environmental factors. On a regional scale, a relatively strong mean 700 mb ridge from the Gulf of Mexico to Baja California was found to accompany high storm frequency. The linear correlation coefficient between storm frequency and a measure of the strength of this ridge amounted to 0.77. On a larger scale, the 700 mb Subtropical Westerlies Index (20°N to 35°N) for west longitudes from 0° to 180° had a somewhat stronger relation to storm frequency (r=0.86). Average August sea surface temperature in the vicinity of storm formation was poorly correlated with storm frequency. This suggests that the unfailingly warm August water temperatures in this area— always exceeding 27°F—were not a limiting factor in storm development.

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WEATHER AND CIRCULATION OF NOVEMBER 1974

Biweekly Amplification of the Circulation Pattern

Robert R. Dickson

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Robert R. Dickson

Abstract

The apparent inverse relationship between Eurasian mean winter snow cover extent and the following warm season Indian monsoon rainfall, described by Hahn and Shukla for the 1967–75 period, is substantiated by the addition of five subsequent years of data if known deficiencies in satellite snow observations are accommodated. In this respect, elimination of a bias due to under-observation of snow cover in the Himalayan region during 1967–74 was crucial for the attainment of statistically significant correlations.

Nonsignificant correlations for a shorter period (1971–80) suggest that Eurasian and Himalayan region winter snow cover extent, as well as that of Eurasia less the Himalayan region, are all about equally well related to the subsequent Indian monsoon rainfall. Furthermore, Eurasian and Himalayan snow cover extent derived from satellite observations are found to be highly correlated.

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