Search Results

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 185 items for

  • Author or Editor: Shang-Ping Xie x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Jing Ma
,
Shang-Ping Xie
, and
Haiming Xu

Abstract

The accurate prediction of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) remains a major challenge for the climate research community. The northwest Pacific (NWP) subtropical anticyclone (NWPSA) is the dominant feature of the EASM low-level circulation variability. This study identifies two coupled modes between intermember anomalies of the NWPSA and sea surface temperature (SST). The first mode features SST anomalies over the tropical Pacific. This tropical Pacific mode has little impact on East Asian climate. The second mode features a strong coupling between SST in the north Indian Ocean (NIO)–NWP and NWPSA, with large impacts on East Asia. This resembles the Indo–western Pacific Ocean capacitor (IPOC) mode of interannual variability. Major differences exist in temporal evolution of the intermember SST spread between the equatorial Pacific and NIO. In the equatorial Pacific, the intermember SST spread grows gradually with lead time, while the spread of SST and low-level zonal wind grow rapidly from May to June in the NIO. The rapid growth over the NIO is due to positive feedback arising from the coupling between intermember anomalies of SST and winds. In post–El Niño summer, the intermember spread in equatorial Pacific SST forecast represents the variations in the timing of the El Niño phase transition. The late decay of El Niño relates to SST cooling and an anomalous cyclonic circulation over the South China Sea (SCS) but with little impact on East Asian climate. Thus, a better representation of the IPOC mode of regional ocean–atmosphere interaction over the NIO–NWP holds the key to improving the reliability of seasonal forecast of East Asian climate.

Full access
Jing Ma
,
Shang-Ping Xie
, and
Haiming Xu

Abstract

Seasonal prediction of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) employs the ensemble method, which samples the uncertainty in initial conditions. While much attention has been given to the ensemble mean, the ensemble spread limits the reliability of the forecast. Spatiotemporal coevolution of intermember anomalies of sea surface temperature (SST) and low-level winds over the Pacific is examined in ensemble hindcasts. Two types of evolution of intermember SST anomalies in the equatorial Pacific are identified. The first features an apparent southwestward propagation of the SST spread from the subtropical northeastern Pacific southeast of Hawaii to the central equatorial Pacific in boreal winter–spring, indicative of the precursor effect of the North Pacific meridional mode (NPMM) on ENSO variability. Extratropical atmospheric variability generates ensemble spread in ENSO through wind–evaporation–SST (WES) in the subtropical northeastern Pacific and then Bjerknes feedback on the equator. In the second type, ensemble spread grows in the equatorial Pacific with a weak contribution from the subtropical southeastern Pacific in summer. Thus, the extratropical influence on ENSO evolution is much stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. The growth of Niño-4 SST ensemble spread shows a strong seasonality. In hindcasts initialized in September–March, the Niño-4 SST spread grows rapidly in January–April, stabilizes in May–June, and grows again in July–September. The rapid growth of the Niño-4 SST spread in January–April is due to the arrival of NPMM, while the slowdown in May–June and rapid growth in July–September are attributable primarily to the seasonality of equatorial ocean–atmosphere interaction. NPMM contributes to the ensemble spread in equatorial Pacific SST, limiting the reliability of ENSO prediction.

Full access
Kaiming Hu
,
Shang-Ping Xie
, and
Gang Huang

Abstract

Year-to-year variations in summer precipitation have great socioeconomic impacts on China. Historical rainfall variability over China is investigated using a newly released high-resolution dataset. The results reveal summer-mean rainfall anomalies associated with ENSO that are anchored by mountains in central China east of the Tibetan Plateau. These orographically anchored hot spots of ENSO influence are poorly represented in coarse-resolution datasets so far in use. In post–El Niño summers, an anomalous anticyclone forms over the tropical northwest Pacific, and the anomalous southwesterlies on the northwest flank cause rainfall to increase in mountainous central China through orographic lift. At upper levels, the winds induce additional adiabatic updraft by increasing the eastward advection of warm air from Tibet. In post–El Niño summers, large-scale moisture convergence induces rainfall anomalies elsewhere over flat eastern China, which move northward from June to August and amount to little in the seasonal mean.

Full access
Xudong Wang
,
Shang-Ping Xie
, and
Zhaoyong Guan

Abstract

Summer atmospheric interannual variability in the Indo–northwestern Pacific (NWP) is coupled with tropical sea surface temperature (SST) variability. This study investigates the importance and origin of atmospheric internal variability in the Indo-NWP region. Using the reanalysis and the 30-member atmospheric model simulation, two SST-related interannual modes are identified in the Indo-NWP region during boreal summer with the month-reliant empirical orthogonal function analysis. The first mode is related to concurrent El Niño–Southern Oscillation originating from the eastern equatorial Pacific whereas the second mode features an anomalous anticyclone (AAC) in post–El Niño summers over the NWP region, known as the Indo-western Pacific Ocean capacitor. The SST-induced modes show temporal persistence from June to August. The residual variability is the focus of this study. The dominant mode of the residual variability displays an AAC structure over the NWP but little month-to-month persistence, indicative of atmospheric internal dynamics unrelated to SST forcing. Further investigation suggests the monthly internal AAC arises from the summer intraseasonal oscillation (ISO). The broad band of ISO yields nonzero monthly means that project strongly onto the AAC pattern. Finally, the anomalies of rainfall and low-level circulation in summer 2016 are investigated. The reversal of the low-level circulation pattern from an AAC in July to an anomalous cyclone over the NWP in August 2016 is due to the ISO-induced internal variability.

Free access
Jian Ma
,
Shang-Ping Xie
, and
Yu Kosaka

Abstract

The annual-mean tropospheric circulation change in global warming is studied by comparing the response of an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) to a spatial-uniform sea surface temperature (SST) increase (SUSI) with the response of a coupled ocean–atmosphere GCM to increased greenhouse gas concentrations following the A1B scenario. In both simulations, tropospheric warming follows the moist adiabat in the tropics, and static stability increases globally in response to SST warming. A diagnostic framework is developed based on a linear baroclinic model (LBM) of the atmosphere. The mean advection of stratification change (MASC) by climatological vertical motion, often neglected in interannual variability, is an important thermodynamic term for global warming. Once MASC effect is included, LBM shows skills in reproducing GCM results by prescribing latent heating diagnosed from the GCMs.

MASC acts to slow down the tropical circulation. This is most clear in the SUSI run where the Walker circulation slows down over the Pacific without any change in SST gradient. MASC is used to decelerate the Hadley circulation, but spatial patterns of SST warming play an important role. Specifically, the SST warming is greater in the Northern than Southern Hemisphere, an interhemispheric asymmetry that decelerates the Hadley cell north, but accelerates it south of the equator. The MASC and SST-pattern effects are on the same order of magnitude in our LBM simulations. The former is presumably comparable across GCMs, while SST warming patterns show variations among models in both shape and magnitude. Uncertainties in SST patterns account for intermodel variability in Hadley circulation response to global warming (especially on and south of the equator).

Full access
Akira Kuwano-Yoshida
,
Bunmei Taguchi
, and
Shang-Ping Xie

Abstract

The baiu rainband is a summer rainband stretching from eastern China through Japan toward the northwestern Pacific. The climatological termination of the baiu rainband is investigated using the Japanese 25-yr Reanalysis (JRA-25), a stand-alone atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) forced with observed sea surface temperature (SST) and an atmosphere–ocean GCM (AOGCM). The baiu rainband over the North Pacific abruptly shifts northward and weakens substantially in early July in the atmospheric GCM (AGCM), too early compared to observations (late July). The midtroposphere westerly jet and its thermal advection explain this meridional shift of the baiu rainband, but the ocean surface evaporation modulates the precipitation intensity. In AGCM, deep convection in the subtropical northwestern Pacific sets in prematurely, displacing the westerly jet northward over the cold ocean surface earlier than in observations. The suppressed surface evaporation over the cold ocean suppresses precipitation even though the midtropospheric warm advection and vertically integrated moisture convergence are similar to those before the westerly jet's northward shift. As a result, the baiu rainband abruptly weakens after the northward shift in JRA-25 and AGCM. In AOGCM, cold SST biases in the subtropics inhibit deep convection, delaying the poleward excursion of the westerly jet. As a result, the upward motion induced by both the strong westerly jet and the rainband persist over the northwestern Pacific through summer in the AOGCM. The results indicate that the westerly jet and the ocean evaporation underneath are important for the baiu rainband, the latter suggesting an oceanic effect on this important phenomenon.

Full access
Wei Mei
,
Shang-Ping Xie
, and
Ming Zhao

Abstract

Interannual–decadal variability of tropical cyclone (TC) track density over the North Atlantic (NA) between 1979 and 2008 is studied using observations and simulations with a 25-km-resolution version of the High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) forced by observed sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The variability on decadal and interannual time scales is examined separately. On both time scales, a basinwide mode dominates, with the time series being related to variations in seasonal TC counts. On decadal time scales, this mode relates to SST contrasts between the tropical NA and the tropical northeast Pacific as well as the tropical South Atlantic, whereas on interannual time scales it is controlled by SSTs over the central–eastern equatorial Pacific and those over the tropical NA. The temporal evolution of the spatial distribution of track density is further investigated by normalizing the track density with seasonal TC counts. On decadal time scales, two modes emerge: one is an oscillation between track density over the U.S. East Coast and midlatitude ocean and that over the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea and the other oscillates between low and middle latitudes. They might be driven by the preceding winter North Atlantic Oscillation and concurrent Atlantic meridional mode, respectively. On interannual time scales, two similar modes are present in observations but are not well separated in HiRAM simulations. Finally, the internal variability and predictability of TC track density are explored and discussed using HiRAM ensemble simulations. The results suggest that basinwide total TC counts/days are much more predictable than local TC occurrence, posing a serious challenge to the prediction and projection of regional TC threats, especially the U.S. landfall hurricanes.

Full access
Gang Huang
,
Kaiming Hu
, and
Shang-Ping Xie

Abstract

The correlation of northwest (NW) Pacific climate anomalies during summer with El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the preceding winter strengthens in the mid-1970s and remains high. This study investigates the hypothesis that the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) response to ENSO is key to this interdecadal change, using a 21-member ensemble simulation with the Community Atmosphere Model, version 3 (CAM3) forced by the observed history of sea surface temperature (SST) for 1950–2000. In the model hindcast, the TIO influence on the summer NW Pacific strengthens in the mid-1970s, and the strengthened TIO teleconnection coincides with an intensification of summer SST variability over the TIO. This result is corroborated by the fact the model’s skills in simulating NW Pacific climate anomalies during summer increase after the 1970s shift.

During late spring to early summer, El Niño–induced TIO warming decays rapidly for the epoch prior to the 1970s shift but grows and persists through summer for the epoch occurring after it. This difference in the evolution of the TIO warming determines the strength of the TIO teleconnection to the NW Pacific in the subsequent summer. An antisymmetric wind pattern develops in spring across the equator over the TIO, and the associated northeasterly anomalies aid the summer warming over the north Indian Ocean by opposing the prevailing southwest monsoon. In the model, this antisymmetric spring wind pattern is well developed after but absent before the 1970s shift.

Full access
Yan Du
,
Lei Yang
, and
Shang-Ping Xie

Abstract

In the summer following a strong El Niño, tropical cyclone (TC) number decreases over the Northwest (NW) Pacific despite little change in local sea surface temperature. The authors’ analysis suggests El Niño–induced tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) warming as the cause. The TIO warming forces a warm tropospheric Kelvin wave that propagates into the western Pacific. Inducing surface divergence off the equator, the tropospheric Kelvin wave suppresses convection and induces an anomalous anticyclone over the NW Pacific, both anomalies unfavorable for TCs. The westerly vertical shear associated with the warm Kelvin wave reduces the magnitude of vertical shear in the South China Sea and strengthens it in the NW Pacific, an east–west variation that causes TC activity to increase and decrease in respective regions. These results help improve seasonal TC prediction.

Full access
Gen Li
,
Shang-Ping Xie
, and
Yan Du

Abstract

Climate models consistently project reduced surface warming over the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean (IO) under increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. This IO dipole (IOD)-like warming pattern, regarded as robust based on consistency among models by the new Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, results in a large increase in the frequency of extreme positive IOD (pIOD) events, elevating the risk of climate and weather disasters in the future over IO rim countries. These projections, however, do not consider large model biases in both the mean state and interannual IOD variance. In particular, a “present–future relationship” is identified between the historical simulations and representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5 experiments from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) multimodel ensemble: models with an excessive IOD amplitude bias tend to project a strong IOD-like warming pattern in the mean and a large increase in extreme pIOD occurrences under increased GHG forcing. This relationship links the present simulation errors to future climate projections, and is also consistent with our understanding of Bjerknes ocean–atmosphere feedback. This study calibrates regional climate projections by using this present–future relationship and observed IOD amplitude. The results show that the projected IOD-like pattern of mean changes and frequency increase of extreme pIOD events are largely artifacts of model errors and unlikely to emerge in the future. These results illustrate that a robust projection may still be biased and it is important to consider the model bias effect.

Full access