Search Results

You are looking at 51 - 53 of 53 items for

  • Author or Editor: Christian Jakob x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Graeme Stephens
,
Jan Polcher
,
Xubin Zeng
,
Peter van Oevelen
,
Germán Poveda
,
Michael Bosilovich
,
Myoung-Hwan Ahn
,
Gianpaolo Balsamo
,
Qingyun Duan
,
Gabriele Hegerl
,
Christian Jakob
,
Benjamin Lamptey
,
Ruby Leung
,
Maria Piles
,
Zhongbo Su
,
Paul Dirmeyer
,
Kirsten L. Findell
,
Anne Verhoef
,
Michael Ek
,
Tristan L’Ecuyer
,
Rémy Roca
,
Ali Nazemi
,
Francina Dominguez
,
Daniel Klocke
, and
Sandrine Bony

Abstract

The Global Energy and Water Cycle Exchanges (GEWEX) project was created more than 30 years ago within the framework of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). The aim of this initiative was to address major gaps in our understanding of Earth’s energy and water cycles given a lack of information about the basic fluxes and associated reservoirs of these cycles. GEWEX sought to acquire and set standards for climatological data on variables essential for quantifying water and energy fluxes and for closing budgets at the regional and global scales. In so doing, GEWEX activities led to a greatly improved understanding of processes and our ability to predict them. Such understanding was viewed then, as it remains today, essential for advancing weather and climate prediction from global to regional scales. GEWEX has also demonstrated over time the importance of a wider engagement of different communities and the necessity of international collaboration for making progress on understanding and on the monitoring of the changes in the energy and water cycles under ever increasing human pressures. This paper reflects on the first 30 years of evolution and progress that has occurred within GEWEX. This evolution is presented in terms of three main phases of activity. Progress toward the main goals of GEWEX is highlighted by calling out a few achievements from each phase. A vision of the path forward for the coming decade, including the goals of GEWEX for the future, are also described.

Open access
Duane E. Waliser
,
Mitchell W. Moncrieff
,
David Burridge
,
Andreas H. Fink
,
Dave Gochis
,
B. N. Goswami
,
Bin Guan
,
Patrick Harr
,
Julian Heming
,
Huang-Hsuing Hsu
,
Christian Jakob
,
Matt Janiga
,
Richard Johnson
,
Sarah Jones
,
Peter Knippertz
,
Jose Marengo
,
Hanh Nguyen
,
Mick Pope
,
Yolande Serra
,
Chris Thorncroft
,
Matthew Wheeler
,
Robert Wood
, and
Sandra Yuter

The representation of tropical convection remains a serious challenge to the skillfulness of our weather and climate prediction systems. To address this challenge, the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment (THORPEX) of the World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) are conducting a joint research activity consisting of a focus period approach along with an integrated research framework tailored to exploit the vast amounts of existing observations, expanding computational resources, and the development of new, high-resolution modeling frameworks. The objective of the Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC) is to use these constructs to advance the characterization, modeling, parameterization, and prediction of multiscale tropical convection, including relevant two-way interactions between tropical and extratropical systems. This article highlights the diverse array of scientifically interesting and socially important weather and climate events associated with the WCRP–WWRP/THORPEX YOTC period of interest: May 2008–April 2010. Notable during this 2-yr period was the change from cool to warm El Niño– Southern Oscillation (ENSO) states and the associated modulation of a wide range of smaller time- and space-scale tropical convection features. This period included a near-record-setting wet North American monsoon in 2008 and a very severe monsoon drought in India in 2009. There was also a plethora of tropical wave activity, including easterly waves, the Madden–Julian oscillation, and convectively coupled equatorial wave interactions. Numerous cases of high-impact rainfall events occurred along with notable features in the tropical cyclone record. The intent of this article is to highlight these features and phenomena, and in turn promote their interrogation via theory, observations, and models in concert with the YOTC program so that improved understanding and pre- dictions of tropical convection can be afforded.

Full access
Cathy Hohenegger
,
Felix Ament
,
Frank Beyrich
,
Ulrich Löhnert
,
Henning Rust
,
Jens Bange
,
Tobias Böck
,
Christopher Böttcher
,
Jakob Boventer
,
Finn Burgemeister
,
Marco Clemens
,
Carola Detring
,
Igor Detring
,
Noviana Dewani
,
Ivan Bastak Duran
,
Stephanie Fiedler
,
Martin Göber
,
Chiel van Heerwaarden
,
Bert Heusinkveld
,
Bastian Kirsch
,
Daniel Klocke
,
Christine Knist
,
Ingo Lange
,
Felix Lauermann
,
Volker Lehmann
,
Jonas Lehmke
,
Ronny Leinweber
,
Kristina Lundgren
,
Matthieu Masbou
,
Matthias Mauder
,
Wouter Mol
,
Hannes Nevermann
,
Tatiana Nomokonova
,
Eileen Päschke
,
Andreas Platis
,
Jens Reichardt
,
Luc Rochette
,
Mirjana Sakradzija
,
Linda Schlemmer
,
Jürg Schmidli
,
Nima Shokri
,
Vincent Sobottke
,
Johannes Speidel
,
Julian Steinheuer
,
David D. Turner
,
Hannes Vogelmann
,
Christian Wedemeyer
,
Eduardo Weide-Luiz
,
Sarah Wiesner
,
Norman Wildmann
,
Kevin Wolz
, and
Tamino Wetz

Abstract

Numerical weather prediction models operate on grid spacings of a few kilometers, where deep convection begins to become resolvable. Around this scale, the emergence of coherent structures in the planetary boundary layer, often hypothesized to be caused by cold pools, forces the transition from shallow to deep convection. Yet, the kilometer-scale range is typically not resolved by standard surface operational measurement networks. The measurement campaign Field Experiment on Submesoscale Spatio-Temporal Variability in Lindenberg (FESSTVaL) aimed at addressing this gap by observing atmospheric variability at the hectometer-to-kilometer scale, with a particular emphasis on cold pools, wind gusts, and coherent patterns in the planetary boundary layer during summer. A unique feature was the distribution of 150 self-developed and low-cost instruments. More specifically, FESSTVaL included dense networks of 80 autonomous cold pool loggers, 19 weather stations, and 83 soil sensor systems, all installed in a rural region of 15-km radius in eastern Germany, as well as self-developed weather stations handed out to citizens. Boundary layer and upper-air observations were provided by eight Doppler lidars and four microwave radiometers distributed at three supersites; water vapor and temperature were also measured by advanced lidar systems and an infrared spectrometer; and rain was observed by a X-band radar. An uncrewed aircraft, multicopters, and a small radiometer network carried out additional measurements during a 4-week period. In this paper, we present FESSTVaL’s measurement strategy and show first observational results including unprecedented highly resolved spatiotemporal cold-pool structures, both in the horizontal as well as in the vertical dimension, associated with overpassing convective systems.

Open access