Search Results

You are looking at 61 - 70 of 225 items for

  • Author or Editor: Bin Wang x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Fei Liu and Bin Wang

Abstract

This study investigates the moisture and wave feedbacks in the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) dynamics by applying the general three-way interaction theoretical model. The three-way interaction model can reproduce observed large-scale characteristics of the MJO in terms of horizontal quadrupole-vortex structure, vertically tilted structure led by planetary boundary layer (PBL) convergence, slow eastward propagation with a period of 30–90 days, and planetary-scale circulation. The moisture feedback effects can be identified in this model by using diagnostic thermodynamic and momentum equations, and the wave feedback effects are investigated by using a diagnostic moisture equation. The moisture feedback is found to be responsible for producing the MJO dispersive modes when the convective adjustment process is slow. The moisture feedback mainly acts to reduce the frequency and growth rate of the short waves, while leaving the planetary waves less affected, so neglecting the moisture feedback is a good approximation for the wavenumber-1 MJO. The wave feedback is shown to slow down the eastward propagation and increase the growth rate of the planetary waves. The wave feedback becomes weak when the convective adjustment time increases, so neglecting the wave feedback is a good approximation for the MJO dynamics during a slow adjustment process. Sensitivities of these two feedbacks to other parameters are also discussed. These theoretical findings suggest that the two feedback processes, and thus the behaviors of the simulated MJO mode, should be sensitive to the parameters used in cumulus parameterizations.

Full access
Bin Wang and Fei Liu

Abstract

The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is an equatorial planetary-scale circulation system coupled with a multiscale convective complex, and it moves eastward slowly (about 5 m s−1) with a horizontal quadrupole vortex and vertical rearward-tilted structure. The nature and role of scale interaction (SI) is one of the elusive aspects of the MJO dynamics. Here a prototype theoretical model is formulated to advance the current understanding of the nature of SI in MJO dynamics. The model integrates three essential physical elements: (a) large-scale equatorial wave dynamics driven by boundary layer frictional convergence instability (FCI), (b) effects of the upscale eddy momentum transfer (EMT) by vertically tilted synoptic systems resulting from boundary layer convergence and multicloud heating, and (c) interaction between planetary-scale wave motion and synoptic-scale systems (the eastward-propagating super cloud clusters and westward-propagating 2-day waves). It is shown that the EMT mechanism tends to yield a stationary mode with a quadrupole vortex structure (enhanced Rossby wave component), whereas the FCI yields a relatively fast eastward-moving and rearward-tilted Gill-like pattern (enhanced Kelvin wave response). The SI instability stems from corporative FCI or EMT mechanisms, and its property is a mixture of FCI and EMT modes. The properties of the unstable modes depend on the proportion of deep convective versus stratiform/congestus heating or the ratio of deep convective versus total amount of heating. With increasing stratiform/congestus heating, the FCI weakens while the EMT becomes more effective. A growing SI mode has a horizontal quadrupole vortex and rearward-tilted structure and prefers slow eastward propagation, which resembles the observed MJO. The FCI sets the rearward tilt and eastward propagation, while the EMT slows down the propagation speed. The theoretical results presented here point to the need to observe multicloud structure and vertical heating profiles within the MJO convective complex and to improve general circulation models’ capability to reproduce correct partitioning of cloud amounts between deep convective and stratiform/congestus clouds. Limitations and future work are also discussed.

Full access
Kazuyoshi Kikuchi and Bin Wang

Abstract

The quasi-biweekly oscillation (QBW: here defined as a 12–20-day oscillation) is one of the major systems that affect tropical and subtropical weather and seasonal mean climate. However, knowledge is limited concerning its temporal and spatial structures and dynamics, particularly in a global perspective. To advance understanding of the QBW, its life cycle is documented using a tracking method and extended EOF analysis. Both methods yield consistent results. The analyses reveal a wide variety of QBW activity in terms of initiation, movement, development, and dissipation. The convective anomalies associated with the QBW are predominant in the latitude bands between 10° and 30° in both hemispheres. The QBW modes tend to occur regionally and be associated with monsoons. Three boreal summer modes are identified in the Asia–Pacific, Central America, and subtropical South Pacific regions. Five austral summer modes are identified in the Australia–southwest Pacific, South Africa–Indian Ocean, South America–Atlantic, subtropical North Pacific, and North Atlantic–North Africa regions.

The QBW modes are classified into two categories: westward- and eastward-propagating modes. The westward mode is found in the Asia–Pacific and Central America regions during boreal summer; it originates in the tropics and dissipates in the subtropics. The behavior of the westward-propagating mode can be understood in terms of equatorial Rossby waves in the presence of monsoon mean flow and convective coupling. The eastward-propagating mode, on the other hand, connects with upstream extratropical Rossby wave trains and propagates primarily eastward and equatorward. Barotropic Rossby wave trains play an essential role in controlling initiation, development, and propagation of the eastward QBW mode in the subtropics. The results therefore suggest that not only tropical but also extratropical dynamics are required for fully understanding the behavior of the QBW systems worldwide. The new conceptual picture of QBW obtained here based on long-term observation provides valuable information on the behavior of QBW systems in a global perspective, which is important for a thorough understanding of tropical variability on a time scale between day-to-day weather and the Madden–Julian oscillation.

Full access
Fei Liu and Bin Wang

Abstract

During late boreal summer (July–October), the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) exhibits maximum variability over the western North Pacific (WNP) centered in the South China Sea and Philippine Sea, but many numerical models have difficulty in simulating this essential feature of the ISO. To understand why this maximum variability center exists, the authors advance a simple box model to elaborate the potential contribution of the mean-state-dependent atmosphere–ocean interaction. The model results suggest that the WNP seasonal mean monsoon trough plays an essential role in sustaining a strong stationary ISO, contributing to the existence of the maximum intraseasonal variability center. First, the monsoon trough provides abundant moisture supply for the growing ISO disturbances through the frictional boundary layer moisture convergence. Second, the cyclonic winds associated with the monsoon trough provide a favorable basic state to support a negative atmosphere–ocean thermodynamic feedback that sustains a prominent stationary ISO. In an active phase of the ISO, anomalous cyclonic winds enhance the monsoon trough and precipitation, which reduce shortwave radiation flux and increase evaporation; both processes cool the sea surface and lead to an ensuing high pressure anomaly and a break phase of the ISO. In the wintertime, however, the wind–evaporation feedback is positive and sustains the Philippine Sea anticyclone. The result here suggests that accurate simulation of the boreal summer climatological mean state is critical for capturing a realistic ISO over the WNP region.

Full access
GARY GRUNSEICH and BIN WANG

Abstract

Prediction of the arctic annual sea ice minimum extent and melting patterns draws interest from numerous industries and government agencies but has been an ongoing challenge for forecasters and climate scientists using statistical and dynamical models. Using the dominant independent modes of interannual sea ice concentration (SIC) variability during September–October, a new approach combining statistical analysis with physically derived links to natural climate variability sources is used to predict each mode and the total anomaly pattern. Sea ice patterns associated with each mode are predominantly shaped by the wind-driven advective convergence, forced by circulation anomalies associated with local and remote forms of naturally occurring climate variability. The impacts of the Arctic Oscillation, beginning from the preceding winter, control the leading mode of SIC variability during the annual minimum. In the three final months of the melting period, the broad impacts of the Indian and East Asian summer monsoons produce unique SIC impacts along the arctic periphery, displayed as the second and third modes, respectively. El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) largely shapes the fourth SIC mode patterns through influencing variability early in the melting period. Using physically meaningful and statistically significant predictors, physical–empirical (P–E) models are developed for each SIC mode. Some predictors directly account for the circulation patterns driving anomalous sea ice, while the monsoon-related predictors convey early season sources of monsoonal variability, which subsequently influences the Arctic. The combined SIC predictions of the P–E models exhibit great skill in matching the observed magnitude and temporal variability along the arctic margins during the annual minimum.

Full access
Takio Murakami and Bin Wang

Abstract

Along the equator, annual mean 200-mb zonal wind is approximately in phase with annual mean outgoing longwave radiation (OLR); namely, easterlies are strongest above the convective center over the maritime continent, while westerlies reach their maximum just above the dry zone over the equatorial Pacific. This is much different from what is anticipated by theories that predict that the phase of the upper-tropospheric zonal wind is in quadrature with that of the prescribed heating. The present study provides evidence that the midlatitude-equatorial coupling is primarily responsible for the maintenance of the annual mean total 200-mb zonal winds along the equator, whereas convection contributes a great deal to the annual mean upper-level equatorial divergent winds. Annual cycles occurring over the extratropics act as a transient eddy forcing of the equatorial annual mean 200-mb zonal wind through three-dimensional convergence of localized Eliassen-Palm (E-P) fluxes. They are acting to accelerate the 200-mb annual mean westerlies (easterlies) over the equatorial eastern Pacific (Indian Ocean) where E-P fluxes are horizontally divergent (convergent). The baroclinic contribution, acting through the meridional heat flux due to annual cycles, appears to be minimal.

The annual cycles differ remarkably between the equatorial Indian and eastern Pacific oceans. The annual cycle in the equatorial Indian Ocean is characterized by 1) the eastward phase propagation of monthly mean anomaly zonal winds with an inverse relationship between the surface and 200 mb (i.e., baroclinic structure in the vertical), and 2) the highest SST occurring about three (four) months prior to the strongest surface westerlies (minimum OLR). The annual cycle in the equatorial eastern Pacific exhibits coherent westward propagation of monthly mean anomaly SST and surface zonal winds, indicating the importance of planetary boundary-layer processes. On the other hand, the annual cycle of 200-mb equatorial zonal winds (the upper-level east-west circulation) is larger of standing wave character, while the annual cycle of OLR is of propagating wave character, implying that the equatorial convection contributes little to the annual cycle of the upper-level east-west equatorial circulation. It is shown that the annual cycle in the upper-level zonal winds over the equatorial eastern Pacific is largely controlled by a pronounced annual cycle of the 200-mb zonal wind occurring in the extratropics of each hemisphere.

Full access
Renguang Wu and Bin Wang

Abstract

Using station rainfall data and the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis, the authors investigate changes in the interannual relationship between the east Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the late 1970s, concurrent with the Pacific climate shift. The present study focuses on decaying phases of ENSO because changes in developing phases of ENSO are less significant. Remarkable changes are found in the summer rainfall anomaly in northern China and Japan. From pre- to postshift period, the summer rainfall anomaly in eastern north China during decaying phases of El Niño changed from above to below normal, whereas that in central Japan changed from negative to normal. Consistent with this, the barotropic anticyclonic anomaly over the Japan Sea changed to cyclonic; the associated anomalous winds changed from southerly to northerly over the Yellow Sea–northeastern China and from northeasterly to northwesterly over central Japan.

The change in the ENSO–related east Asian summer circulation anomaly is attributed to changes in the location and intensity of anomalous convection over the western North Pacific (WNP) and India. After the late 1970s, the WNP convection anomaly is enhanced and shifted to higher latitudes due to increased summer mean SST in the Philippine Sea. This induces an eastward shift of an anomalous low pressure from east Asia to the North Pacific along 30°–45°N during decaying phases of El Niño. Thus, anomalous winds over northeastern China and Korea switch from southeasterly to northeasterly. Before the late 1970s, an anomalous barotropic anticyclone develops over east Asia and anomalous southerlies prevail over northeastern China during decaying phases of El Niño. This may relate to anomalous Indian convection through a zonal wave pattern along 30°–50°N. After the late 1970s, anomalous Indian convection weakens, which reduces the impact of the Indian convection on the EASM.

Full access
Hiroyuki Murakami and Bin Wang

Abstract

Possible future change in tropical cyclone (TC) activity over the North Atlantic (NA) was investigated by comparison of 25-yr simulations of the present-day climate and future change under the A1B emission scenario using a 20-km-mesh Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) atmospheric general circulation model. The present-day simulation reproduces many essential features of observed climatology and interannual variability in TC frequency of occurrence and tracks over the NA. For the future projection, the model is driven by the sea surface temperature (SST) that includes a trend projected by the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) multimodel ensemble and a year-to-year variation derived from the present-day climate. A major finding is that the future change of total TC counts in the NA is statistically insignificant, but the frequency of TC occurrence will decrease in the tropical western NA (WNA) and increase in the tropical eastern NA (ENA) and northwestern NA (NWNA). The projected change in TC tracks suggests a reduced probability of TC landfall over the southeastern United States, and an increased influence of TCs on the northeastern United States. The track changes are not due to changes of large-scale steering flows; instead, they are due to changes in TC genesis locations. The increase in TC genesis in the ENA arises from increasing background ascending motion and convective available potential energy. In contrast, the reduced TC genesis in the WNA is attributed to decreases in midtropospheric relative humidity and ascending motion caused by remotely forced anomalous descent. This finding indicates that the impact of remote dynamical forcing is greater than that of local thermodynamical forcing in the WNA. The increased frequency of TC occurrence in the NWNA is attributed to reduced vertical wind shear and the pronounced local warming of the ocean surface. These TC changes appear to be most sensitive to future change in the spatial distribution of rising SST. Given that most IPCC models project a larger increase in SST in the ENA than in the WNA, the projected eastward shift in TC genesis is likely to be robust.

Full access
Guosen Chen and Bin Wang

Abstract

Current theoretical studies have a debate on whether the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) has a zero or westward group velocity. A recent analysis of the observed Hovmöller diagram of MJO signals suggested that the MJO has a significant westward group velocity. Here it is shown that the observed MJO has a negligibly small group velocity, which is manifested in two aspects. First, on the wavenumber–frequency spectra diagram the precipitation spectra indicate quasi independence of the MJO frequency on wavenumber, suggesting a nearly vanishing group velocity. Second, on the Hovmöller diagram of the regressed intraseasonal daily precipitation, the MJO group velocity is defined by the propagation of the wave envelopes of the precipitation and is shown to be negligibly small for the eastward propagating signals. The causes of the discrepancy between this study and the recent study mentioned above are the calculating method and the data filtering process. The group velocity in the recent study is calculated by the propagation of local convection extrema, which does not necessarily indicate the propagation of the wave envelopes. More importantly, the westward propagation of the local convection extrema is an artifact of the data filtering. The Hovmöller diagram in the recent study was constructed by using only the eastward propagating wavenumber-1–5 signals. This truncation of data onto the planetary scales of the eastward wavenumber domain fails to resolve the Maritime Continent “barrier effect,” causing significant artificial westward propagation of local convection extrema.

Full access
Bin Wang and Xiaosu Xie

Abstract

The tropical intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) exhibits pronounced seasonality. The boreal summer ISO is more complex than its winter counterpart due to the coexistence of equatorial eastward, off-equatorial westward, and northward propagating, low-frequency modes and their interactions. Based on observational evidence and results obtained from numerical experiments, a mechanism is proposed for the boreal summer ISO in which the Northern Hemisphere summer monsoon (NHSM) circulation and moist static energy distribution play essential roles.

With a climatological July mean basic state, the life cycle of model low-frequency waves consists of four processes: an equatorial eastward propagation of a coupled Kelvin–Rossby wave packet, an emanation of moist Rossby waves in the western Pacific, a westward propagation and amplification of the Rossby waves in South Asian monsoon regions, and a reinitiation of the equatorial disturbances over the central Indian Ocean. The life cycle spans about one month and provides a mechanism for self-sustained boreal summer ISO.

Analyses of the model experiments reveal that the monsoon mean flows and spatial variation of moist static energy trap equatorial disturbances in the NHSM domain. The reduction of moist static energy over the eastern central Pacific suppresses equatorial convection, leading to disintegration of the equatorial Kelvin–Rossby wave packet and the emanation of Rossby waves in the western North Pacific. Strong easterly vertical shears and seasonally enhanced boundary layer humidity in the NHSM further amplify the Rossby waves (of the gravest meridional mode), making their structures highly asymmetric about the equator. The intensified Rossby waves start to stall and decay when approaching the Arabian Sea due to the “blocking” of the sinking dry air mass over North Africa, meanwhile triggering equatorial convection. The mean Hadley circulation plays a critical role in reinitiation of the equatorial Kelvin–Rossby wave packet over the equatorial Indian Ocean.

Full access