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  • Author or Editor: G. G. Mace x
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Pavlos Kollias
,
Eugene E. Clothiaux
,
Thomas P. Ackerman
,
Bruce A. Albrecht
,
Kevin B. Widener
,
Ken P. Moran
,
Edward P. Luke
,
Karen L. Johnson
,
Nitin Bharadwaj
,
James B. Mead
,
Mark A. Miller
,
Johannes Verlinde
,
Roger T. Marchand
, and
Gerald G. Mace
Full access
Robert A. Houze Jr.
,
Lynn A. McMurdie
,
Walter A. Petersen
,
Mathew R. Schwaller
,
William Baccus
,
Jessica D. Lundquist
,
Clifford F. Mass
,
Bart Nijssen
,
Steven A. Rutledge
,
David R. Hudak
,
Simone Tanelli
,
Gerald G. Mace
,
Michael R. Poellot
,
Dennis P. Lettenmaier
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Joseph P. Zagrodnik
,
Angela K. Rowe
,
Jennifer C. DeHart
,
Luke E. Madaus
,
Hannah C. Barnes
, and
V. Chandrasekar

Abstract

The Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) took place during the 2015/16 fall–winter season in the vicinity of the mountainous Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. The goals of OLYMPEX were to provide physical and hydrologic ground validation for the U.S.–Japan Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite mission and, more specifically, to study how precipitation in Pacific frontal systems is modified by passage over coastal mountains. Four transportable scanning dual-polarization Doppler radars of various wavelengths were installed. Surface stations were placed at various altitudes to measure precipitation rates, particle size distributions, and fall velocities. Autonomous recording cameras monitored and recorded snow accumulation. Four research aircraft supplied by NASA investigated precipitation processes and snow cover, and supplemental rawinsondes and dropsondes were deployed during precipitation events. Numerous Pacific frontal systems were sampled, including several reaching “atmospheric river” status, warm- and cold-frontal systems, and postfrontal convection.

Open access
J. S. Reid
,
H. B. Maring
,
G. T. Narisma
,
S. van den Heever
,
L. Di Girolamo
,
R. Ferrare
,
P. Lawson
,
G. G. Mace
,
J. B. Simpas
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S. Tanelli
,
L. Ziemba
,
B. van Diedenhoven
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R. Bruintjes
,
A. Bucholtz
,
B. Cairns
,
M. O. Cambaliza
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G. Chen
,
G. S. Diskin
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J. H. Flynn
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C. A. Hostetler
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R. E. Holz
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T. J. Lang
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K. S. Schmidt
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G. Smith
,
A. Sorooshian
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E. J. Thompson
,
K. L. Thornhill
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C. Trepte
,
J. Wang
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S. Woods
,
S. Yoon
,
M. Alexandrov
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S. Alvarez
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C. G. Amiot
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J. R. Bennett
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M. Brooks
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S. P. Burton
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E. Cayanan
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H. Chen
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A. Collow
,
E. Crosbie
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A. DaSilva
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J. P. DiGangi
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D. D. Flagg
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S. W. Freeman
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D. Fu
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E. Fukada
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M. R. A. Hilario
,
Y. Hong
,
S. M. Hristova-Veleva
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R. Kuehn
,
R. S. Kowch
,
G. R. Leung
,
J. Loveridge
,
K. Meyer
,
R. M. Miller
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M. J. Montes
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J. N. Moum
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A. Nenes
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S. W. Nesbitt
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M. Norgren
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E. P. Nowottnick
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R. M. Rauber
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E. A. Reid
,
S. Rutledge
,
J. S. Schlosser
,
T. T. Sekiyama
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M. A. Shook
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G. A. Sokolowsky
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S. A. Stamnes
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T. Y. Tanaka
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A. Wasilewski
,
P. Xian
,
Q. Xiao
,
Zhuocan Xu
, and
J. Zavaleta

Abstract

The NASA Cloud, Aerosol, and Monsoon Processes Philippines Experiment (CAMP2Ex) employed the NASA P-3, Stratton Park Engineering Company (SPEC) Learjet 35, and a host of satellites and surface sensors to characterize the coupling of aerosol processes, cloud physics, and atmospheric radiation within the Maritime Continent’s complex southwest monsoonal environment. Conducted in the late summer of 2019 from Luzon, Philippines, in conjunction with the Office of Naval Research Propagation of Intraseasonal Tropical Oscillations (PISTON) experiment with its R/V Sally Ride stationed in the northwestern tropical Pacific, CAMP2Ex documented diverse biomass burning, industrial and natural aerosol populations, and their interactions with small to congestus convection. The 2019 season exhibited El Niño conditions and associated drought, high biomass burning emissions, and an early monsoon transition allowing for observation of pristine to massively polluted environments as they advected through intricate diurnal mesoscale and radiative environments into the monsoonal trough. CAMP2Ex’s preliminary results indicate 1) increasing aerosol loadings tend to invigorate congestus convection in height and increase liquid water paths; 2) lidar, polarimetry, and geostationary Advanced Himawari Imager remote sensing sensors have skill in quantifying diverse aerosol and cloud properties and their interaction; and 3) high-resolution remote sensing technologies are able to greatly improve our ability to evaluate the radiation budget in complex cloud systems. Through the development of innovative informatics technologies, CAMP2Ex provides a benchmark dataset of an environment of extremes for the study of aerosol, cloud, and radiation processes as well as a crucible for the design of future observing systems.

Open access
Greg M. McFarquhar
,
Christopher S. Bretherton
,
Roger Marchand
,
Alain Protat
,
Paul J. DeMott
,
Simon P. Alexander
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Greg C. Roberts
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Cynthia H. Twohy
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Darin Toohey
,
Steve Siems
,
Yi Huang
,
Robert Wood
,
Robert M. Rauber
,
Sonia Lasher-Trapp
,
Jorgen Jensen
,
Jeffrey L. Stith
,
Jay Mace
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Junshik Um
,
Emma Järvinen
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Martin Schnaiter
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Andrew Gettelman
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Kevin J. Sanchez
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Christina S. McCluskey
,
Lynn M. Russell
,
Isabel L. McCoy
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Rachel L. Atlas
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Charles G. Bardeen
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Kathryn A. Moore
,
Thomas C. J. Hill
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Ruhi S. Humphries
,
Melita D. Keywood
,
Zoran Ristovski
,
Luke Cravigan
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Robyn Schofield
,
Chris Fairall
,
Marc D. Mallet
,
Sonia M. Kreidenweis
,
Bryan Rainwater
,
John D’Alessandro
,
Yang Wang
,
Wei Wu
,
Georges Saliba
,
Ezra J. T. Levin
,
Saisai Ding
,
Francisco Lang
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Son C. H. Truong
,
Cory Wolff
,
Julie Haggerty
,
Mike J. Harvey
,
Andrew R. Klekociuk
, and
Adrian McDonald

Abstract

Weather and climate models are challenged by uncertainties and biases in simulating Southern Ocean (SO) radiative fluxes that trace to a poor understanding of cloud, aerosol, precipitation, and radiative processes, and their interactions. Projects between 2016 and 2018 used in situ probes, radar, lidar, and other instruments to make comprehensive measurements of thermodynamics, surface radiation, cloud, precipitation, aerosol, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and ice nucleating particles over the SO cold waters, and in ubiquitous liquid and mixed-phase clouds common to this pristine environment. Data including soundings were collected from the NSF–NCAR G-V aircraft flying north–south gradients south of Tasmania, at Macquarie Island, and on the R/V Investigator and RSV Aurora Australis. Synergistically these data characterize boundary layer and free troposphere environmental properties, and represent the most comprehensive data of this type available south of the oceanic polar front, in the cold sector of SO cyclones, and across seasons. Results show largely pristine environments with numerous small and few large aerosols above cloud, suggesting new particle formation and limited long-range transport from continents, high variability in CCN and cloud droplet concentrations, and ubiquitous supercooled water in thin, multilayered clouds, often with small-scale generating cells near cloud top. These observations demonstrate how cloud properties depend on aerosols while highlighting the importance of dynamics and turbulence that likely drive heterogeneity of cloud phase. Satellite retrievals confirmed low clouds were responsible for radiation biases. The combination of models and observations is examining how aerosols and meteorology couple to control SO water and energy budgets.

Full access