Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for :

  • Author or Editor: A. P. Siebesma x
  • Journal of Climate x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
R. A. J. Neggers
and
A. P. Siebesma

Abstract

This study explores the opportunities created by subjecting a system of interacting fast-acting parameterizations to long-term single-column model evaluation against multiple independent measurements at a permanent meteorological site. It is argued that constraining the system at multiple key points facilitates the tracing and identification of compensating errors between individual parametric components. The extended time range of the evaluation helps to enhance the statistical significance and representativeness of the single-column model result, which facilitates the attribution of model behavior as diagnosed in a general circulation model to its subgrid parameterizations. At the same time, the high model transparency and computational efficiency typical of single-column modeling is preserved.

The method is illustrated by investigating the impact of a model change in the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO) on the representation of the coupled boundary layer–soil system at the Cabauw meteorological site in the Netherlands. A set of 12 relevant variables is defined that covers all involved processes, including cloud structure and amplitude, radiative transfer, the surface energy budget, and the thermodynamic state of the soil and various heights of the lower atmosphere. These variables are either routinely measured at the Cabauw site or are obtained from continuous large-eddy simulation at that site. This 12-point check proves effective in revealing the existence of a compensating error between cloud structure and radiative transfer, residing in the cloud overlap assumption. In this exercise, the application of conditional sampling proves a valuable tool in establishing which cloud regime exhibits the biggest impact.

Full access
J. Teixeira
,
S. Cardoso
,
M. Bonazzola
,
J. Cole
,
A. DelGenio
,
C. DeMott
,
C. Franklin
,
C. Hannay
,
C. Jakob
,
Y. Jiao
,
J. Karlsson
,
H. Kitagawa
,
M. Köhler
,
A. Kuwano-Yoshida
,
C. LeDrian
,
J. Li
,
A. Lock
,
M. J. Miller
,
P. Marquet
,
J. Martins
,
C. R. Mechoso
,
E. v. Meijgaard
,
I. Meinke
,
P. M. A. Miranda
,
D. Mironov
,
R. Neggers
,
H. L. Pan
,
D. A. Randall
,
P. J. Rasch
,
B. Rockel
,
W. B. Rossow
,
B. Ritter
,
A. P. Siebesma
,
P. M. M. Soares
,
F. J. Turk
,
P. A. Vaillancourt
,
A. Von Engeln
, and
M. Zhao

Abstract

A model evaluation approach is proposed in which weather and climate prediction models are analyzed along a Pacific Ocean cross section, from the stratocumulus regions off the coast of California, across the shallow convection dominated trade winds, to the deep convection regions of the ITCZ—the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Cloud System Study/Working Group on Numerical Experimentation (GCSS/WGNE) Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison (GPCI). The main goal of GPCI is to evaluate and help understand and improve the representation of tropical and subtropical cloud processes in weather and climate prediction models. In this paper, a detailed analysis of cloud regime transitions along the cross section from the subtropics to the tropics for the season June–July–August of 1998 is presented. This GPCI study confirms many of the typical weather and climate prediction model problems in the representation of clouds: underestimation of clouds in the stratocumulus regime by most models with the corresponding consequences in terms of shortwave radiation biases; overestimation of clouds by the 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40) in the deep tropics (in particular) with the corresponding impact in the outgoing longwave radiation; large spread between the different models in terms of cloud cover, liquid water path and shortwave radiation; significant differences between the models in terms of vertical cross sections of cloud properties (in particular), vertical velocity, and relative humidity. An alternative analysis of cloud cover mean statistics is proposed where sharp gradients in cloud cover along the GPCI transect are taken into account. This analysis shows that the negative cloud bias of some models and ERA-40 in the stratocumulus regions [as compared to the first International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP)] is associated not only with lower values of cloud cover in these regimes, but also with a stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition that occurs too early along the trade wind Lagrangian trajectory. Histograms of cloud cover along the cross section differ significantly between models. Some models exhibit a quasi-bimodal structure with cloud cover being either very large (close to 100%) or very small, while other models show a more continuous transition. The ISCCP observations suggest that reality is in-between these two extreme examples. These different patterns reflect the diverse nature of the cloud, boundary layer, and convection parameterizations in the participating weather and climate prediction models.

Full access