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  • Author or Editor: Adam S. Phillips x
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Simone Tilmes
,
Jadwiga H. Richter
,
Ben Kravitz
,
Douglas G. MacMartin
,
Michael J. Mills
,
Isla R. Simpson
,
Anne S. Glanville
,
John T. Fasullo
,
Adam S. Phillips
,
Jean-Francois Lamarque
,
Joseph Tribbia
,
Jim Edwards
,
Sheri Mickelson
, and
Siddhartha Ghosh

Abstract

This paper describes the Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering Large Ensemble (GLENS) project, which promotes the use of a unique model dataset, performed with the Community Earth System Model, with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model as its atmospheric component [CESM1(WACCM)], to investigate global and regional impacts of geoengineering. The performed simulations were designed to achieve multiple simultaneous climate goals, by strategically placing sulfur injections at four different locations in the stratosphere, unlike many earlier studies that targeted globally averaged surface temperature by placing injections in regions at or around the equator. This advanced approach reduces some of the previously found adverse effects of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering, including uneven cooling between the poles and the equator and shifts in tropical precipitation. The 20-member ensemble increases the ability to distinguish between forced changes and changes due to climate variability in global and regional climate variables in the coupled atmosphere, land, sea ice, and ocean system. We invite the broader community to perform in-depth analyses of climate-related impacts and to identify processes that lead to changes in the climate system as the result of a strategic application of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering.

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Stephen W. Nesbitt
,
Paola V. Salio
,
Eldo Ávila
,
Phillip Bitzer
,
Lawrence Carey
,
V. Chandrasekar
,
Wiebke Deierling
,
Francina Dominguez
,
Maria Eugenia Dillon
,
C. Marcelo Garcia
,
David Gochis
,
Steven Goodman
,
Deanna A. Hence
,
Karen A. Kosiba
,
Matthew R. Kumjian
,
Timothy Lang
,
Lorena Medina Luna
,
James Marquis
,
Robert Marshall
,
Lynn A. McMurdie
,
Ernani de Lima Nascimento
,
Kristen L. Rasmussen
,
Rita Roberts
,
Angela K. Rowe
,
Juan José Ruiz
,
Eliah F.M.T. São Sabbas
,
A. Celeste Saulo
,
Russ S. Schumacher
,
Yanina Garcia Skabar
,
Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado
,
Robert J. Trapp
,
Adam C. Varble
,
James Wilson
,
Joshua Wurman
,
Edward J. Zipser
,
Ivan Arias
,
Hernán Bechis
, and
Maxwell A. Grover

Abstract

This article provides an overview of the experimental design, execution, education and public outreach, data collection, and initial scientific results from the Remote Sensing of Electrification, Lightning, and Mesoscale/Microscale Processes with Adaptive Ground Observations (RELAMPAGO) field campaign. RELAMPAGO was a major field campaign conducted in the Córdoba and Mendoza provinces in Argentina and western Rio Grande do Sul State in Brazil in 2018–19 that involved more than 200 scientists and students from the United States, Argentina, and Brazil. This campaign was motivated by the physical processes and societal impacts of deep convection that frequently initiates in this region, often along the complex terrain of the Sierras de Córdoba and Andes, and often grows rapidly upscale into dangerous storms that impact society. Observed storms during the experiment produced copious hail, intense flash flooding, extreme lightning flash rates, and other unusual lightning phenomena, but few tornadoes. The five distinct scientific foci of RELAMPAGO—convection initiation, severe weather, upscale growth, hydrometeorology, and lightning and electrification—are described, as are the deployment strategies to observe physical processes relevant to these foci. The campaign’s international cooperation, forecasting efforts, and mission planning strategies enabled a successful data collection effort. In addition, the legacy of RELAMPAGO in South America, including extensive multinational education, public outreach, and social media data gathering associated with the campaign, is summarized.

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