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Akio Arakawa
Joon-Hee Jung
, and
Chien-Ming Wu


One of the most important contributions of Michio Yanai to tropical meteorology is the introduction of the concepts of apparent heat source Q 1 and apparent moisture sink Q 2 in the large-scale heat and moisture budgets of the atmosphere. Through the inclusion of unresolved eddy effects, the vertical profiles of apparent sources (and sinks) are generally quite different from those of true sources taking place locally. In low-resolution models, such as the conventional general circulation models (GCMs), cumulus parameterization is supposed to determine the apparent sources for each grid cell from the explicitly predicted grid-scale processes. Because of the recent advancement of computer technology, however, increasingly higher horizontal resolutions are being used even for studying the global climate, and, therefore, the concept of apparent sources must be expanded rather drastically. Specifically, the simulated apparent sources should approach and eventually converge to the true sources as the horizontal resolution is refined. For this transition to take place, the conventional cumulus parameterization must be either generalized so that it is applicable to any horizontal resolutions or replaced with the mean effects of cloud-scale processes explicitly simulated by a cloud-resolving model (CRM). These two approaches are called ROUTE I and ROUTE II for unifying low- and high-resolution models, respectively. This chapter discusses the conceptual and technical problems in exploring these routes and reviews the authors’ recent work on these subjects.

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