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Jean-Luc Moncet
,
Gennady Uymin
,
Pan Liang
, and
Alan E. Lipton

Abstract

The optimal spectral sampling (OSS) method provides a fast and accurate way to model radiometric observations and their Jacobians (required for inversion problems) as a linear combination of monochromatic quantities. The method is flexible and versatile with respect to the treatment of variable constituents, and the method’s fidelity to reference line-by-line (LBL) calculations is tunable. The focus of this paper is on the modeling of radiances from hyperspectral infrared sounders in both clear and cloudy (scattering) atmospheres for application to retrieval and data assimilation. In earlier articles, the authors presented an approach that performed spectral sampling for each channel sequentially. This approach is particularly robust in terms of preserving fidelity to LBL models and yields ratios of monochromatic calculations per channel of approximately 1:1 for such hyperspectral sensors as the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) or the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) (when tuned for nominal 0.05-K accuracy). This paper describes the generalization of the OSS concept to minimize the total number of monochromatic points required to model a set of channels across individual spectral bands or across the entire domain of the measurements. Its application to principal components of radiance measurements is addressed. It is found that the optimal solution produced by the OSS method offers computational advantages over existing models based on principal components, but, more importantly, it has superior error characteristics.

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Jean-Luc Moncet
,
Gennady Uymin
,
Alan E. Lipton
, and
Hilary E. Snell

Abstract

This paper describes a rapid and accurate technique for the numerical modeling of band transmittances and radiances in media with nonhomogeneous thermodynamic properties (i.e., temperature and pressure), containing a mixture of absorbing gases with variable concentrations. The optimal spectral sampling (OSS) method has been designed specifically for the modeling of radiances measured by sounding radiometers in the infrared and has been extended to the microwave; it is applicable also through the visible and ultraviolet spectrum. OSS is particularly well suited for remote sensing applications and for the assimilation of satellite observations in numerical weather prediction models. The novel OSS approach is an extension of the exponential sum fitting of transmittances technique in that channel-average radiative transfer is obtained from a weighted sum of monochromatic calculations. The fact that OSS is fundamentally a monochromatic method provides the ability to accurately treat surface reflectance and spectral variations of the Planck function and surface emissivity within the channel passband, given that the proper training is applied. In addition, the method is readily coupled to multiple scattering calculations, an important factor for treating cloudy radiances. The OSS method is directly applicable to nonpositive instrument line shapes such as unapodized or weakly apodized interferometric measurements. Among the advantages of the OSS method is that its numerical accuracy, with respect to a reference line-by-line model, is selectable, allowing the model to provide whatever balance of accuracy and computational speed is optimal for a particular application. Generally only a few monochromatic points are required to model channel radiances with a brightness temperature accuracy of 0.05 K, and computation of Jacobians in a monochromatic radiative transfer scheme is straightforward. These efficiencies yield execution speeds that compare favorably to those achieved with other existing, less accurate parameterizations.

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