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Antonello A. Squintu, Gerard van der Schrier, Else J. M. van den Besselaar, Richard C. Cornes, and Albert M. G. Klein Tank


Long and homogeneous series are a necessary requirement for reliable climate analysis. Relocation of measuring equipment from one station to another, such as from the city center to a rural area or a nearby airport, is one of the causes of discontinuities in these long series that may affect trend estimates. In this paper, an updated procedure for the composition of long series, by combining data from nearby stations, is introduced. It couples an evolution of the blending procedure already implemented within the European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECA&D, which combines data from stations no more than 12.5 km apart from each other) with a duplicate removal, alongside the quantile matching homogenization procedure. The ECA&D contains approximately 3000 homogenized series for each temperature variable prior to the blending procedure, and approximately 820 of these are longer than 60 years; the process of blending increases the number of long series to more than 900. Three case studies illustrate the effects of the homogenization on single blended series, showing the effectiveness of separate adjustments on extreme and mean values (Geneva, Switzerland), on cases in which blending is complex (Rheinstetten, Germany), and on series that are completed by adding relevant portions of Global Telecommunications System synoptic data (Siauliai, Lithuania). A trend assessment on the whole European continent reveals the removal of negative and very large trends, demonstrating a stronger spatial consistency. The new blended and homogenized dataset will allow a more reliable use of temperature series for indices calculation and for the calculation of gridded datasets and it will be available online for users (

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