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  • Author or Editor: Albert Plueddemann x
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Albert J. Plueddemann
and
Robert Pinkel

Abstract

Estimation of spectral mean frequency (spectral first moment) by the variance technique is considered for a signal process contaminated by band limited, additive noise. It is shown that the covariance-based spectral mean estimator is biased for low signal-to-noise ratios if the noise bandwidth is not large compared to the signal bandwidth. The bias is towards the mean frequency of the noise spectrum, typically equivalent to the center of the frequency band passed by the receiver. This noise-biasing is potentially important in the processing of Doppler data from radars, sodars and sonars operating in a pulse-to-pulse incoherent mode. Biasing of the mean frequency estimator can be easily corrected if measurements of the noise covariance are available. In the absence of noise measurements, correction for biasing can still be accomplished by estimating the signal and noise bandwidths and introducing simple models for the signal and noise covariance functions. This technique allows estimation of noise covariance from measurements of signal-plus-noise covariance at more than one time lag. In addition, the models provide a means or predicting potential biasing problems in a generalized Doppler system.

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David A. Siegel
and
Albert J. Plueddemann

Abstract

Several popular techniques employed to remotely sense oceanic velocity fields utilize the Doppler shifts of backscattered radiation (such as sound or light) from suspended particles to estimate fluid velocities. Implicit in this use is the assumption that the motion of the particles and the fluid parcels about them is identical. Here, a simple dynamical model of a solid sphere in a unidirectional oscillating flow is used to evaluate the effects of differential particle motion on remotely sensed Doppler velocity estimates. The analysis indicates that typical oceanic particles will move with the fluid if their density is equal to the fluid's density or if the oscillation frequency (ω) is less than a critical frequency (ω c ≡0.1νa −2; where ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid and a is the particle radius). For oscillation frequencies greater than ω c , the particle and flow velocities diverge significantly from each other. Particle motion will be amplified for particles less dense than the fluid and reduced for relatively heavy particles. The motions of particles and the fluid may have significant phase differences as well. Critical frequencies are estimated for some common oceanic particles enabling the performance of several Doppler velocity measurement techniques to be evaluated. The present results indicate that for some oceanographic applications the Doppler sensing of fluid velocities using particulate backscatter may be limited by the inability of the particles to follow the fluid motion. The model results suggest that it is possible to correct for the velocity differences between the particle and its fluid parcel if the size and relative density of the backscattering material is known. This strongly indicates that a greater emphasis must be placed on the characterization of the materials that are producing the backscattered signals.

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Michael Schlundt
,
J. Thomas Farrar
,
Sebastien P. Bigorre
,
Albert J. Plueddemann
, and
Robert A. Weller

Abstract

The comparison of equivalent neutral winds obtained from (i) four WHOI buoys in the subtropics and (ii) scatterometer estimates at those locations reveals a root-mean-square (RMS) difference of 0.56–0.76 m s−1. To investigate this RMS difference, different buoy wind error sources were examined. These buoys are particularly well suited to examine two important sources of buoy wind errors because 1) redundant anemometers and a comparison with numerical flow simulations allow us to quantitatively assess flow distortion errors, and 2) 1-min sampling at the buoys allows us to examine the sensitivity of buoy temporal sampling/averaging in the buoy–scatterometer comparisons. The interanemometer difference varies as a function of wind direction relative to the buoy wind vane and is consistent with the effects of flow distortion expected based on numerical flow simulations. Comparison between the anemometers and scatterometer winds supports the interpretation that the interanemometer disagreement, which can be up to 5% of the wind speed, is due to flow distortion. These insights motivate an empirical correction to the individual anemometer records and subsequent comparison with scatterometer estimates show good agreement.

Open access
Martin Flügge
,
Mostafa Bakhoday Paskyabi
,
Joachim Reuder
,
James B. Edson
, and
Albert J. Plueddemann

Abstract

Direct covariance flux (DCF) measurements taken from floating platforms are contaminated by wave-induced platform motions that need to be removed before computation of the turbulent fluxes. Several correction algorithms have been developed and successfully applied in earlier studies from research vessels and, most recently, by the use of moored buoys. The validation of those correction algorithms has so far been limited to short-duration comparisons against other floating platforms. Although these comparisons show in general a good agreement, there is still a lack of a rigorous validation of the method, required to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the existing motion-correction algorithms. This paper attempts to provide such a validation by a comparison of flux estimates from two DCF systems, one mounted on a moored buoy and one on the Air–Sea Interaction Tower (ASIT) at the Martha’s Vineyard Coastal Observatory, Massachusetts. The ASIT was specifically designed to minimize flow distortion over a wide range of wind directions from the open ocean for flux measurements. The flow measurements from the buoy system are corrected for wave-induced platform motions before computation of the turbulent heat and momentum fluxes. Flux estimates and cospectra of the corrected buoy data are found to be in very good agreement with those obtained from the ASIT. The comparison is also used to optimize the filter constants used in the motion-correction algorithm. The quantitative agreement between the buoy data and the ASIT demonstrates that the DCF method is applicable for turbulence measurements from small moving platforms, such as buoys.

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