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  • Author or Editor: Alessandro Toffoli x
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Henrique Rapizo, Takuji Waseda, Alexander V. Babanin, and Alessandro Toffoli


Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the effects of a coflowing current field on the spectral shape of water waves. The results indicate that refraction is the main factor in modulating wave height and overall wave energy. Although the structure of the current field varies considerably, some current-induced patterns in the wave spectrum are observed. In high frequencies, the energy cascading generated by nonlinear interactions is suppressed, and the development of a spectral tail is disturbed, as a consequence of the detuning of the four-wave resonance conditions. Furthermore, the presence of currents slows the downshifting of the spectral peak. The suppression of the high-frequency energy under the influence of currents is more prominent as the spectral steepness increases. The energy suppression is also more accentuated and long-standing along the fetch when the directional spreading of waves is sufficiently broad. This result indicates that the current-induced detuning of resonant conditions is more effective when exact resonances are the primary mechanism of nonlinear interactions than when quasi resonances prevail (directionally narrow cases). Additionally, the directional analysis shows that the highly variable currents broaden the directional spreading of waves. The broadening is suggested to be related to random refraction and scattering of wave rays. The random disturbance of wavenumbers alters the nonlinear interaction conditions and weakens the energy exchanges among wave components, which is expressed in the suppression of the high-frequency energy.

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Giulio Passerotti, Luke G. Bennetts, Franz von Bock und Polach, Alberto Alberello, Otto Puolakka, Azam Dolatshah, Jaak Monbaliu, and Alessandro Toffoli


Irregular, unidirectional surface water waves incident on model ice in an ice tank are used as a physical model of ocean surface wave interactions with sea ice. Results are given for an experiment consisting of three tests, starting with a continuous ice cover and in which the incident wave steepness increases between tests. The incident waves range from causing no breakup of the ice cover to breakup of the full length of ice cover. Temporal evolution of the ice edge, breaking front, and mean floe sizes are reported. Floe size distributions in the different tests are analyzed. The evolution of the wave spectrum with distance into the ice-covered water is analyzed in terms of changes of energy content, mean wave period, and spectral bandwidth relative to their incident counterparts, and pronounced differences are found between the tests. Further, an empirical attenuation coefficient is derived from the measurements and shown to have a power-law dependence on frequency comparable to that found in field measurements. Links between wave properties and ice breakup are discussed.

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